HUN Exam3 Trace Minerals

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bkheath
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HUN Exam3 Trace Minerals
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2011-11-15 23:36:59
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HUN Exam3 Trace Minerals
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  1. 2 forms of Iron (Fe)
    • Ferrous (Fe 2+): reduced form
    • Ferric (Fe 3+): oxidized form
  2. Functions of iron (4)
    Oxygen transport:
    ____ metabolism (part of _____)
    Needed for ____ function: ____
    ____ function (tissues trap iron to starve microbes)
    • Oxygen transport (hemoglobin & myoglobin)
    • Enzyme metabolism (part of cytochromes of ETC)
    • Enzyme cofactor (needed for enzyme function)
    • Immune function (tissues trap iron to starve microbes)
  3. Oxygen carrying protein in muscle tissue
    Myoglobin
  4. Iron-containing portion of hemoglobin and myoglobin
    Heme
  5. Protein which stores iron in the intestinal cell. Absorbed iron is binds to and is transported by ___
    • ferritin
    • transferrin
  6. Absorption of non-heme iron is increased by:
    (2) dietary factors
    Vitamin C
    (2) physiological factors
    • Heme iron
    • MFP factor (meat factor protein- meat inc absorption)
    • Stomach acid
    • Increased need
  7. Iron in ___ form is absorbed into ____ where it is held & stored by ____. Excess is ____. Iron is also lost during ___.
    • reduced (ferric 2+)
    • intestinal mucosal cells
    • ferritin
    • lost in feces
    • cell turnover
  8. Iron is stored in ___ of ____
    macrophages of liver & spleen
  9. An iron-containing storage complex of ferritin
    Hemosiderin
  10. Iron is lost from turnover of intestinal mucosal cells, blood loss, and people who ____
    are athletes (have higher losses/turnover)
  11. Stages of iron deficiency:
    Dec stores
    Dec transport
    Dec ___ synthesis
    ____ anemia
    • hemoglobin
    • Hypochromic ("less color"), microcytic (small RBCs)
  12. Symptoms iron deficiency:
    Anemia: paleness
    Weakness & ____
    Irritability
    Dec ___ performance
    ____ (dietary)
    • fatigue
    • mental & physical
    • Pica (eating nonfood items)
  13. Genetic disorder in which excess iron is absorbed, causing iron overload & liver damage
    Hemochromatosis
  14. Ethnic group most at risk hemochromatosis which is the most common genetic disease in the US: 1 in 8 care carriers & 1 in 100-200 have double mutation
    Caucasians of N European descent (esp Irish/Scottish)
  15. Symptoms hemochromatosis early & late
    • Early: none, or fatigue & mild joint pain
    • Late: liver disease, endocrine disorders, severe arthritis
  16. To test for hemochromatosis:
    gene: test for presence of ____ mutation,
    excess iron: ___
    • HFE
    • excess iron in liver via biopsy
  17. Ppl w/excess iron must avoid supplemental Vit C, fortified foods, and ___. They can also ingest ___ which reduces iron absorption.
    • raw seafood
    • coffee or tea (polyphenols bind to iron)
  18. Functions of zinc as enzyme cofactor: (>300 enzymes)
    ___ synthesis
    ___ metabolism & growth
    ___ function
    ___ (growth)
    ___
    Regulates gene expression
    • Nucleic acid synthesis (DNA/RNA)
    • Protein
    • Immune
    • Development of sex organs
    • Vision
  19. Sources zinc & best source
    • Red meat (best)
    • Shellfish
    • Poultry
    • Liver
    • Dairy
    • Whole grains
    • Legume
  20. How is zinc absorbed into cell as well as transported in blood?
    Absorbed by binding to metallothionein in mucosal cell and transported by albumin
  21. What factors affect zinc absorption?
    Bound by ____
    Enhanced bioavailability by ___
    Influenced by ___
    • fiber & phytates (decrease absorption)
    • red meats
    • other minerals (like Cu)
  22. How is zinc recycled?
    Via enteropancreatic recirculation (intestines, pancreas)
  23. ____ binds to zinc in intestinal mucosal cell, preventing its absorption into blood
    Metallothionein
  24. Effects of zinc deficiency (6)
    • Dwarfism
    • Hypogonadism
    • Altered digestive function
    • Impaired immunity
    • Lethargy
    • Anemia
  25. Effects of excess zinc:
    Potential ___ or ___ deficiency, causing ___
    Decreased ___
    ___
    • Potential Cu or Fe, anemia
    • Decreased HDL cholesterol
    • GI distress
  26. Iodine is a component of the 2 thyroid hormones ___ (one is converted into the other one, name the order) which regulate basal metabolic rate, body temp, and promote growth & dvlmpt
    T4 --> T3
  27. ____ --> T4 (___) --> T3 (___)
    • tyrosine
    • thyroxine
    • triiodothyronine
  28. Bioavailability of iodine is decreased by ___ which inhibits iodine uptake by thyroid and is found in ____. This can be overcome by ___.
    • goitrogens
    • cabbage family
    • cooking which breaks down goitrogens
  29. Symptoms iodine deficiency include:
    Goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland) which causes ___ and ___
    Cretinism which occurs in ___ (ppl) and causes ___
    • Sluggishness, weight gain
    • Pregnant women; mental disabilities, short stature, deaf/mute in child
  30. Excess iodine can cause ___
    enlargement of thyroid gland
  31. Functions of Copper:
    ____
    ___ metabolism
    ___ activity
    ___ synthesis
    ETC
    ___
    • Enzyme cofactor
    • Iron
    • Antioxidant
    • Collagen
    • Pigmentation
  32. Food sources copper
    • Nuts, legumes, seeds
    • Chocolate
    • Liver, oysters
    • Whole grains
  33. Effects of copper deficiency (rare)
    ___ (disease)
    ___ (in association with Zn excess)
    ___ probs & ___ defects
    ___ (visible signs)
    • Menke's disease (genetic, reduced absorption)
    • Anemia
    • Neurological probs & brain defects
    • Abnormal hair & skin pigmentation
  34. Effects of excess copper:
    ___ (disease)
    ___ probs
    ___ damage
    • Wilson's disease
    • GI probs
    • Liver damage
  35. Functions of manganese:
    enzyme cofactor in:
    ___ synthesis
    ___ conversion during metabolism
    ___ formation
    • Enzyme cofactor in:
    • urea synthesis
    • pyruvate --> oxaloacetate
    • bone formation
  36. Sources manganese
    • Wide distribution: many plants:
    • nuts, legumes, whole grains, tea
  37. Effects of manganese deficiency
    • Unknown in humans
    • In animals, affects growth, skeletal & repro systems
  38. Effects excess mangenese & cause
    • Nervous system problems;
    • environmental exposure (mines, steel mills)
  39. ___ strengthens bone structure & inhibits caries
    Fluoroapatite
  40. Sources fluorine
    tea, seafood, F water
  41. Effect fluorine deficiency (1)
    Caries susceptibility
  42. Excess fluorine causes (2)
    Fluorosis: tooth discoloration & GI distress
  43. 2 functions chromium
    • Glucose homeostatis
    • Carb & lipid metabolism
  44. Sources chromium
    • Brewer's yeast
    • Meats, organs, egg yolks
    • Whole grains
    • Nuts
    • Less refined foods
  45. ___ makes insulin receptor on cells more receptive to glucose uptake
    Chromium
  46. Effects chromium deficiency in animals (unknown in humans)
    Impaired glucose tolerance (animals)
  47. Effects excess chromium & source (& type of chromium)
    • Cellular DNA damage (--> cancer)
    • From airborne contamination of chromium-6
  48. Functions selenium (2)
    • Antioxidant enzyme systems: glutathione peroxidase; works w/Vit E
    • Regulates thyroid hormone metabolism (needed for synthesis of T4 to T3)
  49. Sources selenium
    • Seafood, meats
    • Grains
  50. Effects selenium deficiency
    ___ (disease)
    ___
    • Possible increased susceptibility to nutritional, chemical, infectious disease
    • Keshan's disease (china) causes cardiomyopathy
  51. Effects excess selenium
    • Selenosis: vomiting, diarrhea, brittleness & loss of hair & nails
    • Skin lesions
  52. Functions molybdenum (1)
    enzyme cofactor
  53. Sources molybdenum
    Legumes, grains, nuts (depends on soil content)

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