Function of blood:
O2, CO2, metabolic wastes, nutrients, & hormone
Function of blood:
Vasodilatation of surface vessels dump heat
Regulation of body temperature
Function of blood:
Contains cells of the immune defence system
Protection from disease and infection
Thicker (more viscous) than water & slightly adhesive
Physical characteristics of blood
What is the temperature of blood?
Temperature of 100.4 degrees F (38 C)
What is the pH of blood?
What % of total body weight is blood?
What is the average blood volume for a male/female
male: 5-6 liters
female: 4-5 liters
Blood consists of ____________ and ______________ ________
plasma; formed elements (cells)
What % of blood is plasma?
What % of blood are cells?
What % of blood cells are red?
Blood plasmsa is over _____ % water
Created in liver
Confined to bloodstream
plasma proteins (7%)
Maintain blood osmotic pressure
antibodies bind to foreign substances called _______
antibodies bind to foreignsubstances called antigens
What % of blood is not water or plasma proteins?
2% other substances
Electrolytes (Na and Cl ions), nutrients, hormones, vitamins, gases (CO2), waste products (urea, ammonia)
other substances found in the blood
What are the formed elements of blood?
Platelets (special cell fragments)
What are the 2 types of white blood cells?
Contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin that gives blood its red color– 1/3 of cell’s weight is hemoglobin
Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or Erythrocytes
What type of disk is RBCs?
– increased surface area/volume ratio
– flexible shape for narrow passages
– no nucleus or other organelle
What speed do RBC enter circulation?
new RBCs enter circulation at 2 million/second from red bone marrow
What is the life span of RBCs?
approximately 120 days
Why do RBCs live only 120 days?
– wear out from bending to fit through capillaries
– no repair possible due to lack of organelle
How are worn out RBCs removed?
By fixed macrophages in spleen and liver
Breakdown products are recycled
What does globin consist of?
4 polypeptide chains
Attached to each polypeptide chain
One heme pigment
Each heme contains an _____ _____ (Fe+2) that can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecul
Can carry 4 oxygen molecules from lungs to tissue cells
Each hemoglobin molecule
Transports 23% of total CO2 waste from tissue cells to lungs for release
– combines with amino acids in globin portion of Hb
– CO2 also travels dissolved in blood plasma
have a nucleus and no hemoglobin
Granular or agranular classification based on presence of cytoplasmic granules made visible by staining
neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils
monocyes or lymphocytes
• Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
• Nuclei = 2 to 5 lobes connected by thin strands
• Granules filled with digestive enzymes
Fastest response of all WBC to bacteria
Release lysozymes which destroy/digest bacteria
Release defensin proteins that act like antibiotics & poke holes in bacterial cell walls destroying them
Release strong oxidants (bleach-like, strong chemicals ) that destroy bacteria
Neutrophil Function (Direct actions against bacteria)
Nucleus with 2 or 3 lobes connected by a thin strand
Large, uniform-sized granules stain orangered with acidic dyes
Granules contain enzymes that end allergic reactions and attack parasites
Large, dark purple, variable-sized granules
Irregular, multi-lobed nuclei
Granules contain substances that intensify inflammatory reaction (histamine)
Dark, oval to round nucleus
Do not contain granules
Play a role in immunity
Destroy bacteria and their toxins
Turn into plasma cells that produces antibodies
– attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells & some bacteria
Nucleus is kidney or horse-shoe shaped
Largest WBC in circulating blood
Does not remain in blood long before migrating to the tissues
Differentiate into macrophages
• fixed group found in specific tissues
– alveolar macrophages in lungs
– kupffer cells in liver
• wandering group gathers at sites of infection
Less numerous than RBCs
– 4000 to 11,000 cells per drop of blood
A high white blood cell count– microbes, strenuous exercise, anesthesia or surgery
Low white blood cell count
– radiation, shock or chemotherapy
Are produced in the red bone marrow
Emigration & Phagocytosis in WBCs:
Roll along endothelium, stick to it & squeeze between cells.
Help WBCs stick to endothelium
-displayed near site of injury
Adhesion molecules (selectins)
Found on neutrophils assist in movement through wall
phagocytize bacteria & debris
– chemotaxis of both
• kinins from injury site & toxins
Neutrophils & macrophages
Disc-shaped, 2 - 4 micron cell fragment with no nucleus
Are fragments of large cells called megakaryocyte
Promote blood clotting by sticking together in response to certain release factors released from the wall of damaged blood vessels
Injecting previously stored RBC’s before an athletic event– more cells available to deliver oxygen to tissues