Science and Technology Vocabulary List

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Science and Technology Vocabulary List
2011-11-15 02:11:03
Ap World History

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  1. al-Khwarizmi
    Islamic mathematician who pioneered the study of algebra. His textbook on the subject became a standard in European universities for centuries.
  2. Abbassid Dynasty
    (750 - 1258) Ruling family of the Islamic Empire during its golden age. This dynasty is responsible for many achievements
  3. Algebra
    A branch of mathematics pioneered by Islamic mathematician al-Khwarizmi in which letters are used to represent unknown numbers to generalize arithmetic.
  4. Antiseptic
    An agent that helps prevent or reduce infection in wounds.
  5. astrolabe
    A device used to determine latitude by observing the altitude and position of the sun or other start or planet.
  6. Caravel
    A Portuguese ship that had a large cargo area and used two or three masts.
  7. Baron de Montesquieu
    (1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker from France who wrote a book called, The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. In his book, Montesquieu describes what he considers to be the best government. He states that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. Montesquieu explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people's liberty.
  8. Computer Revolution
    During the 1980s personal computers began to appear in many homes across the world. By the late 1990s, computers had become a staple in most industrialized country’s homes.
  9. Dyke
    A drainage ditch used to help control flooding.
  10. Alexander Fleming
    (1881-1955) English scientist who, in 1928, observed that a mold called Penicillium killed germs. This discovery resulted in the development of antibiotics, which attack or weaken bacteria that cause many diseases. Antibiotics were not widely used until the 1940s.
  11. Green Revolution
    Throughout the 20th century, scientists worked on improving agriculture, especially in areas with high populations. Some of the technologies developed included better irrigation systems so farmers could get water to their crops. New machinery was built to handle larger production and to take the burden of agriculture work off of humans. New chemical fertilizers and pesticides were created to increase food production, and new varieties of grains and livestock were developed also for greater production. The Green Revolution has had only limited success. The high costs associated with many of these new technologies have kept the small farmer from taking advantage of them.
  12. Thomas Newcomen
    (1663-1729) Developed a steam engine powered by coal.
  13. Louis Pasteur
    (1822-1895) French scientist who discovered the link between germs and disease. He also showed that killing germs, often prevented the spread of certain diseases.
  14. Theory of Relativity
    Theory of motion and energy developed by Albert Einstein in the 20th century.
  15. Telescope
    A device used to see distant objects, such as those in space.
  16. Jethro Tull
    (1674-1741) British farmer and inventor, created the mechanical seed drill to aid in planting.
  17. James Watt
    (1736-1819) Improved upon Newcomen’s steam engine. Watt’s steam engine would be the power source of the Industrial Revolution.