Micro Exam III-Blood.txt

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kackerson
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11695
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Micro Exam III-Blood.txt
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2010-03-23 11:24:35
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Micro Exam III blood
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Micro Exam III-Blood
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  1. Define Plasma:
    Constitutes 55% of Blood, Approx. 8% protein (Albumin,globulins and fibrinogen), Contains clotting factors
  2. Define Serum:
    =plasma minus the clotting factors
  3. 3 major functions of blood:
    • 1) Transportation
    • 2) Waste Removal
    • 3) Regulate heat and fluid volume
  4. 45% of blood is made up of formed elements. What are the three major elements?
    • RBC's
    • Leukocytes (WBCs)
    • Thrombocytes
  5. One of Albumins greatest functions is what?
    balancing osmotic pressure
  6. Globulins do what?
    Transport ions, hormones and lipids
  7. Plasma cells produce…
    Immunoglobulins (Ig) which are antibodies
  8. Platelets are also known as…
    Thrombocytes
  9. What is a normal PCV range in domestic animals?
    24-57
  10. Average size of an erythrocyte is:
    5 um diameter in domestic animals (7.5 um in dog, 3-4 um in goat)
  11. The immature form of an RBC is called a:
    Reticulocyte
  12. Why look at blood smears?
    To see cell size, shape and staining affinity
  13. Define Anisocytosis:
    abnormal variation in size of RBCs
  14. Define Poikilocytosis: What species is poikilocytosis normal in?
    Variation in shape of RBCs, Goats and deer
  15. What is the avg. lifespan for an RBC?
    120 days, 90% phagocytosed by spleen, liver and bone marrow, 10% broken down in blood
  16. The greater surface area of the RBC helps to enhance what?
    Gas exchange
  17. Define crenation:
    Abnormal notchings around edges of RBS (spiked appearance)
  18. Define Rouleau Formation:
    Stacking of RBC's, common in the equine
  19. Central Pallor:
    lighter central area of RBC seen in cats and dogs
  20. RBC's are anucleated in all species except in…
    Birds and reptiles
  21. Define macrocyte:
    A larger than normal RBC
  22. Define Microcyte:
    RBC smaller than normal for that species
  23. Define Polycythemia:
    Increased Hct, RBC's and Hb
  24. Define Hypochromia:
    Decreased cytoplasmic staining and increased pallor
  25. Define Reticulocytosis/penia:
    Increased/decreased reticulocytes
  26. Define Hb E:
    Embryonic Hemoglobin
  27. Define Hb F:
    Fetal Hemoglobin
  28. Define Hb A:
    Hemoglobin of adults
  29. Life stages of an Erythrocyte:
    Proerythrocyte to basophilic erythroblast to polychromatophilic erythroblast to orthochromatophilic erythroblast to reticulocyte to MATURE RBC
  30. What is the order of frequency for Leukocytes in the blood?
    • Neutrophils ------- Thousands
    • Lymphocytes ----- Thousands
    • Monocytes -------- Hundreds
    • Eosinophils ------- Hundreds
    • Basophils ---------- Scores
  31. What are the four types of granulocytes?
    Basophils, Banded Neutrophils (immature), Segmented Neutrophils (mature), and eosinophils
  32. What are the two types of Agranulocytes?
    Lymphocytes and Monocytes
  33. Key characteristics of Neutrophils:
    • -Associated with BACTERIAL infections
    • -2-5 nuclear lobes
    • -9-12 um in diameter
    • -named for lack in cytoplasmic staining
    • -Most common WBC in Dogs, Cats, and Horses
    • -Phagocytic in blood or CT
    • -Short lifespan 95-10 hrs in blood, 1-4 days in tissue)
  34. What's the most common WBC in dogs cats and horses?
    Neutrophils
  35. What's the most common WBC in ruminants and birds?
    Lymphocyte
  36. What WBC is associated with becterial infections?
    Neutrophils
  37. What WBC is associated with parasites and/or allergic reactions?
    Eosinophils
  38. What WBC is associated with allergies?
    Basophils
  39. Eosinophil granules contain what? Eosinophils also contain…
    • MBP (Major Basic Protein) enzyme (hydrolyzing)
    • Eosinophils also contain, ecp (eosinophilic cationic protein), epo (eosinophilic peroxidase), and edn (eosinophilic derived neurotoxin)
  40. Key characteristics of Eosinophils:
    • -motile, capable of diapedeis (movement through capillary walls)
    • - 12-15 um in diameter
    • - allergy and parasite reactions
    • - common in dermis, bronchial tree, vagina, uterus
    • - 2-4% of WBCs
    • - eosinophilic granules
    • - bi-lobed nucleus
  41. Name three distinguishing characteristics of Horse Blood:
    • 1) Rouleau formation
    • 2) Bright red and raspberry shaped eosinophils
    • 3) No reticulocytes
  42. Name major characteristics of basophils:
    • 0-1% or WBCs
    • 12-15 um in diameter
    • Closely related to Mast cells
    • Allergy response!
    • Contain histamine and heparin
    • Vasodialate and increase vascular permeability
  43. Characteristics of Monocytes:
    • "Garbagemen" of the body
    • Phagocytose- clean whatever tissue they have entered and differentiate ex: Kupffer cells in the liver, microgliocytes in the CNS, etc.
    • 3-5% of WBCs
    • Large pale nucleus usually indented on one side
    • 12-20 um in diameter- LARGEST
    • Lysosomes in cytoplasm
  44. T/F You can differentiate T and B lymphocytes histologically.
    False
  45. Define ECF:
    Eosinophilic Stimulating Factor- stimulates histamine and heparin release from basophils which leads to anaphylaxis
  46. What are the contents of Neutrophils?
    Lysozomes, lactoferrin, phagocytins, and peroxidase
  47. Major characteristics of Lymphocytes:
    • Agranulocyte
    • 20-60% WBC
    • Round, nucleus, round cell and thin rim of cytoplasm
    • T and B cells (90% T)
  48. Define T cells:
    produce cell-mediated immune responses
  49. Define B cells:
    produce humoral-antibody responses
  50. T/F Most lymphocytes continuously recirculate between blood and lymph
    True
  51. Define platelets:
    Sticky, can contract as part of clot formation, contain actin and myosin, originate from megakaryocytic
  52. What is the only blood cell to recirculate?
    Lymphocytes
  53. Define granuloma:
    A collection of modified macrophages usually surrounded by a layer of lymphocytes
  54. Avian blood has:
    • Nucleated RBC's
    • Oval shaped RBC's
    • Live longer than Mammalian RBCs
  55. What type of Lymphocyte differentiates into plasma cells when stimulated? What does the plasma cell produce?
    B lymphocytes can differentiate into plasma cells to secrete antibodies
  56. Natural Killer cells originate from what?
    T Lymphocytes
  57. Define Thrombocytes:
    Nucleated platelets found i birds, fish and reptiles
  58. Name the sites of PreNatal hematopoeisis:
    embryonic yolk sac, liver, spleen, bone marrow
  59. Name the site of PostNatal hematopoeisis:
    Red Marrow
  60. Interleukins are produced by…
    T lymphocytes. Interleukins are responsible for cell differentiation during hematopoeisis
  61. CSFs are produced by who?(Colony Stimulating Factors)
    Endothelial cells, macrophages and fibroblasts. CSFs are Erythropoeitic Growth Factors
  62. In birds, the most abundant blood cell type is what? 2nd most abundant?
    • #1- Lymphocytes
    • #2- Heterophils (pseudoeosinophils)

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