Bio Unit 4 Lecture 1

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Siobhan
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116983
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Bio Unit 4 Lecture 1
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2011-11-15 10:15:30
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Bio Unit Lecture
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Bio Unit 4 Lecture 1
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  1. why classify and name life?
    •Identify organisms

    •“keep track” of quantity of life

    • •Increase specificity of knowledge of
    • organisms

    •Learn about evolution of species

    •Avoid confusion
  2. systems of classification
    •Hierarchical Taxonomy (mostly obsolete)

    •Systematics

    •Phylogenetics

    •Cladistics
  3. Early Taxonomy
    •Linnaeus (1707-1778)

    •Binomial Nomenclature

    • –Latin
    • names

    • –Eliminates
    • confusion of common names

    • –Genus
    • species (italicized
    • or underlined)

    • –Homo
    • erectus, Canis
    • lupus, Nereis
    • virens,
    • Crepidula
    • fornicata
  4. Linnaean Taxonomy:
    A Hierarchical System
    Kingdom- fruits

    Phylum- citrus fruits

    Class-orange citrus fruits

    Order- oblate orange citrus fruits

    Family- clementine

    Genus- citrus

    Species- reticulata
  5. Major divisions of life
    • 3 domain systems- bacteria, archaea, eukarya
    • introduced by Carl Woese in 1977
  6. Phylogenetics
    • The study of evolutionary “relatedness” of organisms through time
    • Based upon observed similarities (morphological, genetic)
  7. Systematics
    •Naming and classifying organisms using phylogenies

    • •Goal is to describe evolutionary tre
    • Fossil evidence
    • Molecular/genetic info from extant
    • (living) organisms
    • Anatomical similarities
    • Comparing genomes
    • between two extant groups or species
    • Example:
    • Fugu and
    • humans share 71% of the dystrophin gene
    • (Pozzoli et
    • al.)
  8. cladistics
    • Method of classifying species that share
    • common characteristics (clade)
    • A type of systematics
    • Contemporary version of KPCOFGS
    • All organisms in a phylogenetic group are
    • related by a common ancestor (monophyletic)
    • May include morphological, genetic,
    • biochemical features
    • Not based on the assignment of perceived
    • “complexity” levels to organisms
    • ‘Nested,’ not hierarchical
    • Includes the group’s most recent common
    • ancestor as well as all descendants
    • A clade may include organisms that seem
    • very different
    • Ex: Teleostomi
    • includes bony fish, amphibians, mammals

  9. What
    is a “Species”?

    • Still under debate
    • Phylogenetic species concept
    • Recent
    • common ancestor
    • Smallest
    • distinct grouping (molecular evidence)
    • Biological species concept
    • Same
    • niche, interbreeding individuals, geographically contained
    • Does
    • not apply to asexual organisms (bacteria)

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