Unit 4 Lecture 2 Prokaryots

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Unit 4 Lecture 2 Prokaryots
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2011-11-16 12:08:04
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Unit Lecture Prokaryots
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Unit 4 Lecture 2 Prokaryots
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  1. bacteria vs archaea

  2. Classification
    of Bacteria and
    Archaea
    • Easy
    • to distinguish the domains
    • Harder
    • to classify by clades
    • Not
    • many obvious structural differences
    • Determining
    • evolutionary relatedness difficult (no fossils)
    • Generally
    • grouped by:
    • Shape
    • Locomotion
    • Pigments
    • Colony-forming
    • Staining
    • properties (Gram stain
    • Current
    • classification based largely upon molecular comparisons between nucleotide
    • sequences in RNA (usually rRNA)

  3. Prokaryote
    Shapes
    • Cell
    • walls of prokaryotes give them their shape
    • Most
    • common are spherical (coccus), rod (bacillus),
    • corkscrew or spiral

  4. Features
    of Prokaryotes

    • Motility
    • Colony
    • forming (films)
    • Endospores
    • Occupy
    • diverse habitats
    • Can
    • be anaerobic
    • Most
    • reproduce asexually

  5. Prokaryote
    Motility

    • Both
    • bacteria and archaea can
    • have flagella
    • May
    • have one or many
    • Archaea have
    • thinner flagella
    • Prokaryote
    • flagella is different structurally from eukaryotes

  6. Colonial
    Prokaryotes

    • Slime
    • on surface protects and/or helps with adhesion to surfaces or each other

  7. Endospores
    • Genetic
    • material and protein encapsulated
    • Prokaryotic
    • cell breaks open
    • This
    • resting spore will be ‘reactivated’ when conditions improve

  8. Habitats of prokaryots
    • Virtually
    • all habitats on earth contain prokaryotes
    • Extreme
    • habitats, thought to be devoid of life, contain main specialized species
    • Deep
    • sea
    • Boiling
    • mud pots, glaciers
    • High
    • salinity
    • Within
    • the bodies of other organisms
  9. Metabolism of prokaryots
    • Can
    • be aerobic or anaerobic
    • Anaerobic-
    • metabolic processes do not require oxygen
    • Obligate
    • anaerobes
    • Facultative
    • anaerobes
    • Some
    • species can utilize “non-food” molecules
    • Hydrocarbons,
    • methane, sulfur, etc.
    • Photosynthetic
    • prokaryotes contain chlorophyll (ex: cyanobacteria)
  10. Reproduction of prokaryots
    • Binary
    • fission- asexual reproduction by splitting
    • Rapid,
    • permits rapid evolution, ability to successfully inhabit temporary habitats
    • Conjugation-
    • sexual reproduction by exchange of plasmid through temporary binding of plasma
    • membrane

  11. Importance
    of Prokaryotes

    • Produce
    • nutrients
    • Vits K
    • and B12
    • Break
    • down food (herbivores)
    • Digest
    • cellulose




    • Nitrogen
    • cycle
    • Nitrogen
    • fixation: converting inorganic N into organic N
    • Legumes
    • have chamber of nitrogen fixing bacteria
    • N
    • fixing bacteria also live in soil
    • Decomposition
    • Prokaryotes
    • break down dead/decaying matter and recycle nutrients
    • Bioremediation
    • Using
    • prokaryotes to break down waste products (hydrocarbons, industrial waste,
    • detergents, etc)
  12. Disease of Prokaryots
    • Bacteria
    • produce toxins (tetnus)
    • Cause
    • sickness (Lyme disease, cholera, plague)
    • Common
    • bacteria can be harmful depending upon situation and individual
  13. Viruses Structure
    • Protein
    • coat with DNA or RNA
    • Come
    • in many shapes
    • Very
    • small

  14. Virus
    Lifestyle

    • Parasitic
    • Reproduce
    • only in a host cell
    • Host-specific
    • May
    • be cell-specific
    • Infections
    • are difficult to treat without damaging host, viruses evolve quickly

  15. Prions
    and
    Viroids
    • Viroids-
    • particles of RNA (no protein coat)
    • Infect
    • mostly plants
    • Prions
    • – protein particles that are infectious
    • BSE
    • (‘mad cow’)
    • Creutzfeld-Jacob
    • Scrapie
    • Kuru

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