Bio Unit 4 lecture 2 pt 2 Protists

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Bio Unit 4 lecture 2 pt 2 Protists
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2011-11-16 12:31:22
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Bio Unit 4 lecture 2 pt 2
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  1. What
    is a
    Protist?
    • Refers to all eukaryotes that are
    • not animals, plants, or fungi
    • Protozoans
    • (first
    • animals)
    • Unicellular
    • algae
    • Slime
    • molds
    • Not a monophyletic grouping
    • Almost entirely unicellular

  2. Protist Nutrition
    • Heterotrophs
    • Phagotrophs
    • (particle feeders)
    • Osmotrophs
    • (dissolved food)
    • Predatory
    • (pfiesteria)
    • Autotrophs
    • phytoplankton

  3. Protist Reproduction
    • Asexual- all protozoans
    • Binary
    • fission
    • Sexual- many protozoans
    • Conjugation
    • Individuals
    • swap genetic information
    • Production
    • of gametes
    • Some may produce resting spores
    • until conditions become favorable

  4. Protist Classification
    • Phylum Protista replaced by Kingdom
    • Protista
    • Kingdom Protista is not
    • monophyletic
    • Many distantly related protists are
    • grouped together
    • Protists can be found in several clades
    • Scientists are still researching the evolutionary history of protists
    • Some groups contain plant- and animal-like protists
    • Protist taxonomy is still changing

  5. Animal-like features of Protozoans
    • Heterotrophic
    • Motile
    • Some reproduce sexually
    • Colonial almost to multicellularity
    • Choanoflagellates are considered the closest
    • relatives to animals

  6. General
    Characteristics of
    Protists
    • Plastids, including chloroplasts
    • Locomotor organelles Cilia,
    • flagella, pseudopodia
    • Vaculoles
    • Have a flagellated phase of life
    • cycle
    • May form colonies

  7. Protist Groups
    • 1. Euglenozoa
    • Chloroplasts, Chl b
    • Some are parasitic, e.g. Trypanosoma
    • sp.
    • causes African
    • sleeping sickness
    • Euglena
    • 2. Diplomonads
    • Mitochondria lost during
    • evolutionary history
    • Giardia
    • lives in streams, forms cysts

    • 3. Clade Opisthokonta
    • (clade includes all animals and fungi)
    • Choanoflagellates
    • Clade
    • Viridiplantae (clade includes all plants)
    • All
    • have chloroplasts
    • Multicellular
    • and unicellular green algae
    • Chlamydomonas,
    • spirogyra, ulva


  8. Clade Stramenopiles
    • Water molds, diatoms, brown algae
    • Diatoms have silica wall called a frustrule box-like frustule
    • Important in food webs
    • Complex adaptations to prevent
    • sinking

  9. Alveolates
    • Phylum Apicomplexa
    • All are parasites
    • Some stages are flagellated or use
    • pseudopodia, but not as motile as other protozoans
    • Plasmodium
    • causes malaria
    • Toxoplasma is parasitic in cats,
    • livestock, humans

    • Clade Opisthokonta
    • (clade includes all animals and fungi)
    • Choanoflagellates
    • Clade Viridiplantae (clade includes all plants)
    • All
    • have chloroplasts
    • Multicellular
    • and unicellular green algae
    • Chlamydomonas,
    • spirogyra, ulva
    • Dinoflaggellates
    • Many produce toxins
    • Some bioluminescent, symbiotic (zooxanthellae in corals)
    • Ecological indicatorsHABs (harmful algal blooms)
    • Pfiesterianon-photosyntheticPowerful neurotoxin, flesh-eating

  10. Alveolates:

    Dinoflagellates, cont.
    • Many produce toxins
    • Some bioluminescent, symbiotic (zooxanthellae in corals)
    • Ecological indicators
    • HABs (harmful algal blooms)
    • Pfiesteria
    • non-photosynthetic
    • Powerful neurotoxin, flesh-eating
  11. Amoebozoans
    • Amoebas
    • Classification
    • is tricky
    • Many
    • amoeba look the same but are evolutionarily different
    • Pseudopodia
    • Phagotrophic
    • Some
    • have a shell or test made of silica
    • Foraminiferans,
    • radiolarians

  12. Slime Molds
    • May be cellular or acellular
    • Acellular forms a multinucleate mass called
    • a plasmodium
    • may
    • spread over large distances
    • Cellular slime molds may form
    • colonies

  13. Red Algae
    • Red algae
    • Multicellular
    • Photosynthetic
    • with red pigments
    • May
    • contribute to reef formation with calcium carbonate deposits

  14. Importance of Protists
    • Harmful algal blooms (HABs)
    • Red tides and brown tides

    • Many form the basis of food chains
    • e.g. food for shellfish, larval fish
    • Protists eat bacteria
    • Sewage treatment plants
    • Algae biofuels?
    • Indicators of past climate
    • Forams
    • provide extensive fossil record
  15. Clade
    Viridiplantae (clade includes all plants)
    • protists group
    • have chloroplasts
    • Multicellular and unicellular
    • green algae
    • Chlamydomonas,
    • spirogyra, ulva
  16. Euglenozoa
    • protists group
    • Chloroplasts, Chl b
    • Some are parasitic, e.g. Trypanosoma
    • sp.
    • causes African
    • sleeping sickness
    • Euglena
  17. Diplomonads
    • protist group
    • Mitochondria lost during
    • evolutionary history
    • Giardia
    • lives in streams, forms cysts

  18. Pfiesteria
    • alveolates- dinoflagellates
    • non-photosynthetic
    • Powerful neurotoxin, flesh-eating
  19. Phylum Apicomplexa
    • All are parasites
    • Some stages are flagellated or use
    • pseudopodia, but not as motile as other protozoans
    • Plasmodium
    • causes malaria
    • Toxoplasma is parasitic in cats,
    • livestock, humans
  20. clade opisthokanta
    • protist group
    • all animals and gungi
  21. clade virdiplantae
    • protist group
    • all plants
    • chloroplasts
    • multicellular and unicellular green algae
    • ulva
  22. euglenozoa
    • protist group
    • chloroplasts, cl B
    • parasitic- african sleeping sickness
  23. diplomonads
    • protists group
    • mitochondria lost during evolutionary history
    • Giardia lives in steams, forms cysts

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