Unit 4 Lecture 4 Fungi

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Siobhan
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Unit 4 Lecture 4 Fungi
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2011-11-15 10:41:16
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Unit Lecture Fungi
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Unit 4 Lecture 4
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  1. Characteristics of Fungi
    • Fungi consist of:
    • Mycelium made
    • up of hyphae
    • May produce obvious reproductive
    • structures (e.g. mushrooms)
    • Hyphae are tubes ~1 cell thick
    • Cell wall contains chitin
    • All fungi are heterotrophs
    • Absorb nutrients from surroundings

  2. Fungal Nutrition
    • Fungi secrete enzymes that break down
    • substrate into smaller particles that can be absorbed
    • Fungi can be:
    • Saprophytic: eat
    • dead/decaying matter
    • Symbiotic or Mutualistic:
    • both parties benefit (ex: mycorrhizae, lichen)
    • Parasitic

  3. Fungal Reproduction
    • Specialized compartments in hyphae
    • produce spores sexually or asexually
    • Asexually produced spores
    • Haploid
    • Common under “good” conditions
    • Stressful environment induces sexual
    • reproduction
    • Special diploid structures form during a
    • specific part of life cycle
    • Produce haploid spores



    • Plasmogamy- the fusing of hyphae cells (haploid) of
    • neighboring mycelia

    • Karyogamy- the fusing of the haploid nuclei of
    • those cells produces diploid cells

    • Meiosis then results in haploid spores
    • that are unique
  4. Plasmogamy
    • the fusing of hyphae cells (haploid) of
    • neighboring mycelia
  5. Karyogamy
    • the fusing of the haploid nuclei of those
    • cells produces diploid cells
  6. Fungi
    Classification
    • Chitridiomycota
    • Zygomycota
    • Glomeromycota
    • Basidiomycota
    • Ascomycota
  7. Chytridiomycota
    • Chytrids are mostly aquatic
    • Flagellated spores require water for
    • dispersal (*only group with flagellated spores)
    • Saprophytic or parasitic
  8. Zygomycota
    • Zygomycetes live in soil
    • Saprophytic
    • Spore producing structures are sporangia
    • During sexual reproduction zygosporangia
    • form,
    • which contain nuclei from both parents (see Fig 22-6)
    • Can remain dormant for extended periods

  9. Glomeromycota
    • Glomeromycetes live
    • in symbiotic association with plant roots, called mycorrhiza
    • Hyphae extend into root cells
    • Reproduction not fully understood
    • Smallest fungal group
  10. Basidiomycota
    • Basidiomycetes
    • produce club shaped reproductive structures (“mushrooms”)
    • Reproductive structures consist of
    • tightly packed hyphae
    • Most reproduce sexually
    • Spores are produced by structures called
    • basidia
    • located
    • in the gills
  11. Ascomycota
    • Ascomycetes reproduce both sexually and asexually
    • Have sac- or cup-shaped reproductive
    • structures called ascocarp
    • Spores are produced in the ascus
    • (pl. asci) of
    • the ascocarp
    • Examples include truffles, yeast, and
    • penicillin
  12. Lichen
    • Fungus with symbiotic algae or
    • cyanobacteria
    • Mostly ascomycetes
    • Can grow in extreme habitats
  13. Mycorrhizae
    • General name for fungus that lives
    • symbiotically with plant roots
    • Members of all groups form mycorrhizae
    • Provides nutrients to plant
    • Fungi and plants likely moved to land
    • around the same time (~460mya)
    • Mycorrhizae may have helped aquatic
    • plants survive on land

  14. Importance of Fungi
    • Decomposers (saprophytes)
    • Important in forest food webs
    • Only fungi can digest lignin in wood
    • Primary decomposers of forest floor
    • litter
    • Food for humans and animals
    • “mushrooms” as well as yeast, cheeses,
    • wine and beer
    • Contain B vits, including pantothenic acid, and niacin
    • Antibiotics and other medications

  15. Ecological Impacts of Fungi
    • Agricultural diseases
    • Corn smut, fruit molds, ergot, timber, bean rusts,
    • dry rot
    • Dutch Elm disease, chestnut blight
    • Endophytes live in grasses making them unpalatable
    • to livestock
    • Human diseases
    • Athlete’s foot, lung infections, thrush

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