Lecture 5 Plant Diversity 1

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Siobhan
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116990
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Lecture 5 Plant Diversity 1
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2011-11-16 11:40:31
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Lecture Plant Diversity
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Lecture 5 Plant Diversity 1
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  1. Importance of Plants
    • Basis of most terrestrial food webs
    • Carbon fixation provides ‘food’ for
    • heterotrophs
    • Oxygen!
    • Contribute to soil production/retention
    • Decomposition of plants improves soil
    • Erosion control
    • Maintain water in ecosystems
    • Global nutrient cycles
    • Products for humans
    • Building materials
    • Fuel
    • Food
    • Medicines
    • Aspirin (willow bark), digitalin (heart med), atropine (eye dilation),
    • opiates, etc.
    • Herbal remedies
    • Recreation

  2. Plants: The Move to Land
    • Plants evolved from charophytes (stoneworts, a
    • green algae) ~475mya
    • First terrestrial plants were mosses
    • Terrestrial life required special
    • adaptations:
    • Protection of embryos
    • Specialized modes of embryo dispersal
    • Features to protect from drying
    • Structural support
    • Transport tissues

  3. Plants and Terrestrial Life
    • Most plants today live on land
    • Advantages:
    • Water impedes light, easier access to
    • nutrients
    • No herbivores (at first!)
    • Disadvantages:
    • Water provided support, moisture,
    • dispersal of gametes/zygotes

  4. Adaptations to Terrestrial Life
    • Waxy cuticle
    • Roots
    • Stomata
    • Lignin
    • Vascular tissue
    • Protection (seeds) and dispersal
    • mechanisms for gametes (pollen)
    • Attraction of pollinators

  5. Alternation of Generations
    • Plant reproductive cycle
    • Involves a two part life cycle
    • Gametophyte is the haploid generation
    • Sporophyte is the diploid generation
    • Both are multicellular individuals
    • Each ‘takes a turn’ producing the other
  6. Major Plant Groups
    • Nonvascular- Liveworts, Mosses
    • Vascular- Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms

  7. Nonvascular Plants
    • Called bryophytes
    • Includes hornworts, liverworts, mosses
    • Lack roots, leaves, stems
    • Instead of roots have rhizoids that
    • anchor, bring nutrients/water
    • No conductive tissues (xylem, phloem)
    • Most <1” tall
    • Live in moist habitats

  8. Reproduction of Nonvascular Plants
    • Require moisture for reproduction
    • Special structures adapted to terrestrial
    • reproduction
    • Archegonia (where eggs develop)
    • Antheridia (sperm)
    • Structures can be on different
    • individuals or on a single plant

  9. Vascular Plants
    • Contains two groups
    • Seedless vascular plants (ferns, etc)
    • Seed plants (conifers, flowering plants)
    • Vascular tissue consists of specialized
    • cells that
    • Provide support (contain lignin)
    • Transport nutrients/water

  10. Seedless Vascular Plants
    • Reproduce by spores
    • Club mosses, horsetails, ferns
    • Dominated the ancient landscape, but were
    • outcompeted by flowering plants ~150mya
    • Today are much smaller with
    • (generally) small
    • leaves

  11. Seedless Vascular Plants:

    Ferns

    • Only SVPs with broad leaves
    • Most diverse of the SVPs
    • Reproduction requires water
    • Fossilized spores indicate the ferns
    • recolonized immediately after K/T extinction event
    • Human uses include medicines, fibers,
    • food (fiddleheads)

  12. Seed Plants
    • Includes:
    • Angiosperms (flowering plants)
    • Gymnosperms (pines, cycads, palms)
    • Unique from other groups b/c of pollen
    • and seeds
    • Pollen (male gametophyte) carries male
    • sex cells
    • Seeds (embryonic sporophyte) provide
    • nourishment, protection for developing embryo

  13. Gymnosperms
    • Very successful group until flowering
    • plants appeared ~150mya
    • Most are now extinct
    • Includes 4 groups
    • Ginkgos
    • Cycads
    • Gnetophytes
    • Conifers




    • Cycads
    • Mostly tropical
    • Used for food (although toxic!) and
    • medicine
    • Often confused with palms
    • Gnetophytes
    • Some are very slow growing and can live
    • 1000s of years
    • Source of ephedra

  14. Gymnosperms: Conifers
    • About 500 species includes:
    • Pines, firs, spruce, cypress
    • Typically found in drier or colder
    • climates (except cypress)
    • Usually evergreen (exceptions include
    • larch and tamarack)
    • Thin, waxy needles are adaptation to dry
    • climates
    • Thick “antifreeze” containing sap (pitch)
    • Seeds develop in cones
  15. Cycads
    • type of gymnosperm
    • Mostly tropical
    • Used for food (although toxic!) and
    • medicine
    • Often confused with palms

  16. Gnetophytes
    • type of gymnosperm
    • Some are very slow growing and can live
    • 1000s of years
    • Source of ephedra

  17. Pine Cones
    • Cones are male and female
    • Single tree will have both
    • Male cones usually smaller
    • Female cones contain two ovules within
    • each scale
    • After fertilization by male pollen, 1
    • female ovule becomes embryo
    • Female cone dries, scales are released,
    • germinate in soil
  18. Angiosperms
    • Large, diverse group
    • Flowers are an adaptation to encourage
    • pollination
    • Sporophyte is the dominant generation
    • where flowers form
  19. bryophytes
    nonvascular plants
  20. rhizoids
    anchor/bring water to nutrients in nonvascular plants
  21. gymnosperm
  22. based on morphology, not phylogeny
    taxonomy
  23. based upon observed similarities- morphology, genetic
    phylogenetic
  24. fossil evidence
    systematics

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