Ultrasound ABD 00 gen

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  1. Hyperechoic
    Greater than reference structure
  2. Hypoechoic
    Less than reference structure
  3. Anechoic
    Absence of echoes.
  4. Isoechoic
    Equal echogenicity
  5. Order of echogenicity
    Renal sinus, Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, Renal Cortex.
  6. The lining of Abdominal cavity
    Parietal peritoneum.
  7. AIDS disorder
    Pneumocystic carinii, fatty liver infiltration, hepatitis, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, candidiasis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, Kaposi’s sarcoma
  8. Lymphoceles
    Pelvic surgery common complication

    Caused by leakage of lymph from a renal allograft, by surgical disruption lymphatic channels
  9. Crus of diaphragm
    • Anterior to the aorta
    • Superior to the CT
    • Posterior to IVC
    • Medial posterior to the adrenal glands
  10. Retroperitoneum dividing
    • Perirenal space
    • Anterior pararenal space
    • Posterior pararenal space
  11. Retroperitoneum structures (11)
    • Kidney and ureters
    • Adrenal glands,
    • IVC
    • Aorta
    • Pancreas
    • Portions of duodenum
    • Ascending & descending colon
    • Prostate
    • Lymph nodes
    • Uterus
    • Bladder
  12. Retroperitoneal fibrosis etiology
    Usually idiopathic (of unknown origin), causes may include an autoimmune response, drugs, abdominal aortic aneurysm, infection, retroperitoneal malignancy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy
  13. Acute appendicitis
    • Periumbilical pain, leukocytosis, fever, RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
    • Develops from the obstruction of the appendiceal lumen.
    • Appendix grate than 6 mm in diameter.
  14. Acute diverticulitis
    • Associated with the presentation of LLQ pain, fever leukocytosis
    • Thickened bowel or abscess formation in LLQ
  15. Target or pseudokidney sign
    Abnormal bowel wall thickening, hypoechoic external rim representing the thickened intestinal wall and an echogenic center relating to the residual gut lumen or mucosal ulceration
  16. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
    Hypertrophy of the circular pyloric muscle, resulting in elongation and constriction of the itestines between the stomach and the first portion of the duodenum.

    Neonates present with projective vomiting, palpable “olive-like” abdominal mass

    Pyloric muscle thickness >4mm, pyloric channel length >1.2cm, pyloric cross section >1.5cm
  17. Intussusceptions
    Most common cause of obstruction in infants

    Intermittent abdominal pain, vomiting, passage of blood through the rectum

    • Oval, pseudokidney mass, central echoes on longitudinal imaging, sonolucent doughnut or target configuration on
    • cross-sectional imaging
  18. Baker’s cyst
    Collection of synovial fluid which is found in the medial aspect of popliteal fossa

    • May be caused by trauma or rheumatoid arthritis, synovial fluid is very inflammatory and can cause pain.
    • Infection, venous thrombosis or compression of veins causes calf swelling
  19. Pseudomyxoma peritoneli
    Rare condition: filling of the peritoneal cavity with mucinous material and gelatinous ascites. Result of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary, appendix …

    Cause rupture of a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix or ovary
  20. Retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy
    Posterior to IVC displacing it anteriorly
  21. Lymph nodes: sonographically
    Anechoic or hypoechoic masses without acoustic enhancement
  22. Hepatoblastoma
    Most common primary liver tumor in children
  23. Hydronephrosis
    Most common neonatal abdominal mass
  24. Wilm’s tumor
    Most common solid abdominal mass in children
  25. Neuroblastoma
    Is second most common solid mass in children
  26. Multicystic dysplastic kidney
    Most common form of cystic disease in infants
  27. Multiple endocrine Neoplasia
    Familial, autosomal dominant, adenomatous hyperplasia
  28. Multiple endocrine Neoplasia: associated tumors(4)
    • Parathyroid adenoma
    • Medullary thyroid carcinoma
    • Pancreatic islet cell tumor
    • Pheochromocytoma
  29. Biliary obstruction elevating lab values(3)
    • Conjugated bilirubin
    • Alkaline phosphate
    • Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
  30. Tumor maker lab values
    Alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)
  31. Pseudokidney sign
    Inflammatory bowel
  32. Water lily sign
    Echinococcal cysts
  33. Parallel channel sign
    Intrahepatic duct dilatation
  34. Double bubble sign
    Duodenal atresia
  35. Olive sign
    Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
  36. Comet tail or reverberation artifact makers
    • Adenomyomatosis
    • Emphysematous cholecystitis
    • Pneumobilia
  37. Propagation speed artifact making structures
    • Hepatic lipoma
    • Angiomyolipomas
    • Adrenal myelolipoma (common denominator = fatty tumors)
Card Set
Ultrasound ABD 00 gen
Ultrasound ABD 00 gen
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