FIRST AID.txt

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FIRST AID.txt
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  1. The most basic elements of human survival are __1__ ______ and ___2___
    • 1. blood circulation
    • 2. breathing
  2. Lungs remove ___1____ from the atmosphere and ransfer it to the body
    1. oxygen
  3. lack of oxygen for _1__ minutes could result in brain damage
    1. 4
  4. Basic Life Support (bls) include the (__1_)'s ____ ______ ______
    1 ABC-airway breathing circulation
  5. Unconcious Patient(airway-breathing)
    -gently tap he shoulder and ask " are you ok"
    -if no reply send bystander for aid
    -use the __1__'s
    -look and listen for __2__
    - open the airway may alow breathing to return
    -____3___ for the patient- rotate your hand on the patients forhead and close the nostrils, take a deap breath, make a tight seal, blow, give 2 full breaths if you cant get air into the lungs reasses the airway, attempt to breath again , if still unable to ventilate initiate obstructed airway procedures
    - if ventilation is succesfull check for _____ beat
    • 1. ABS's
    • 2. breathing
    • 3. breathe
    • 4. heart
  6. What are the 2 ways to open the ariway
    • 1. head tilt chin lift
    • 2. jaw thrust
  7. Opening the airway
    Head tilt chin lift
    • lift the head back by gently applying pressure to the forhead, use two fingers on the other hand to lift the chin
    • *dont overextend the neck, you will close the airway
  8. Opening the airway
    Jaw Thrust
    • place your index fingers behind the angles of the patients lower jaw and bring the jaw forward. Tilt the head back and use your thumb behind the lower teeth and your index finger under the lower jaw to open the airway
    • * do not overextedn the neck, you will close the airway
  9. Unconscious Patient (circulation)
    Chek the ___1___ artery (artery passes up both sides of the neck)-find the larynx at the front of the neck and then slide _2__ fingers to either side, usee slight pressure and feel with your fingertips in a grove at the side of the larynx. No pulse start __3__.
    • 1. Cartoid
    • 2. 2
    • 3. CPR
  10. While preforming CPR you should be on a 1__ __, and locate the 2__ __. The bony structure at the bottom of the chest directly above the soft abdomen. (the cartilage at the lower end of the sternum)
    • 1 firm surface
    • 2 Xiphoid process
  11. While preforming CPR measure with 1__ __ __ up from the the xiphoid point with one hand. place the heel of the other hand on the lower half of the 2__ with the side of the hand pointing to the paitents feet.
    • 1 two finger width
    • 2 sternum
  12. while preforming CPR your free hand should measure 1__ inches above the harnd used to locate the Xiphoid.
    1 one and a half inches
  13. while giving CPR its critical to keep your 1__ __, rock back and forth from the hips exerting 2__ __
    • 1 arms straight
    • 2 vertical strength
  14. the compression dept in an adult is 1__ to 2__ inches
    • 1 one and a half
    • 2 two inches
  15. For CPR a single rescuer adult ratio is
    1_:_ and 2__ to __ compressions per minute
    • 1 15:2
    • 2 80 to 100
  16. For CPR a two rescuer ratio is 1_:_ and __ to __ compressions per minute
    • 1 5:2
    • 2 80 to 100
  17. Child CPR
    Heel of ine hand depresses the lower __1____ ______ of the sternum while the other hand maintains head tilt
    Compression depth is 3/4 to _2_ ___
    Ratio~3_:_
    4__-__ compressions a minute
    • 1. One half
    • 2. 1 1/2
    • 3. 5:1
    • 4. 80-100
  18. Infant CPR
    Place the tips of the index and middle finger __1__ finger width below the mid nipple line
    Depth- 2__ to __ inch
    _3__-___ compressions a minute
    • 1. One
    • 2. 1/2 to 1 inch
    • 3. 100-120
  19. Once your start CPR continue until:
    Sufficient circulation and ____1____ are restored
    Another qualified individual assumes __2___
    A ____3____ tells you to stop they assume responsibility
    The individual administering it is ______4____ and unable to continue
    • 1. Ventilation
    • 2. CPR
    • 3. Physician
    • 4. Exhausted
  20. Most heart attack patients are in their _1__'s and ___'s
    A heart attack usualy occurs in ___2___ ventricle and can cause death, ___3___ and ___4_____.
    • 1. 40s and 50s
    • 2. Left
    • 3. CHF
    • 4. Shock
  21. __1___ _____ of those who experience a myocardial infraction (MI) die befor they reach a hospital
    1. One half
  22. The heart muscle squeezss from ___1__ to _____. Pumping stops in a portion of the ____2___ can no longer squeeze or the electrical messages that control muscle action are disrupted or out of order.
    • 1. Top to bottom
    • 2. Muscle
  23. Congestive heart failure (CHF)
    Frequently occurs after a MI. it means you have fluid in the lungs. You will feel best when sitting.
  24. 6 symptoms of MI
    • 1. Chest pain
    • 2. Shortness of breath
    • 3. Sudden weakness, nausea, sweating
    • 4. Anxiety
    • 5. Unconsciousness
    • 6. Death
  25. Heart attack
    Pain from a heart attack is a squeezing nature in the ___1_____ of the chest, sometimes radiating to the jaw, left arm or both arms. Unlike angina pain, it usually last more then __2__ minutes
    • 1. Center
    • 2. 30
  26. Heart attack pain is not brought on from exertion and cannot be treated with_____1_____.
    Pain can come on while walking, ___2____, or eating. It does not come from ___3____ or emotional stress.
    • 1. Nitroglycerine
    • 2. Sleeping
    • 3. Physical
  27. Stroke a.k.a. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
    Restricted blood supply to the brain
  28. Stroke severity will depend upon the portion and the amount of the ____1__ damaged.
    1. Brain
  29. Interuption of blood flow to the brain can be caused by :
    ______1____ (blockage) of cerebral (head) artery when a clot forms
    Rupture of an ___2____, blood flowing intonthe brain can cause brain damage
    A __3___ that forms elsewhere and moves to the brain
    • 1. Occlusion
    • 2. Rupture
    • 3. Clot
  30. Stroke
    Clotting of a ____1____ vessel where atherosclerotic disease (layer of fat forms beneath the inner cell layer on an artery) is the most ____2____ cause of stroke.
    Usualt occurs in elderly people with ____3______. Young people with hypertension may also be at risk.
    • 1. Cerebral
    • 2. Common
    • 3. Hypertension
  31. Aneurysm
    When BP reaches dangerously high levels a blood vessels eall can become weakend and protrude
  32. Stroke patient care
    ________1______, administer ___2______, intravenous infusion to provide a ___3____ line for drugs.
    • 1. Observation
    • 2. Oxygen
    • 3. Life
  33. Characteristic sign of Stroke
    ____1___ hand pressure, facial ___2___ or uneven smile, _____3_____ in one arm or leg, difficulty ___4_____.
    • 1. Unequal
    • 2. Droop
    • 3. Weakness
    • 4. Moving
  34. Stroke
    The brain is devided into ___1__ halfs, left and right. The right controls the ____2___ side of the body and the left side of the brain contrails the ___3____ side of your body
    • 1. 2
    • 2. Left
    • 3. Right
  35. Stroke
    Very high BP with a ___1_____ pulse indicate ___2____ swelling
    Maintain calmness and reassure the patient, _3__ _____ give fluids by mouth, transport
    • 1. Slow
    • 2. Barin
    • 2. Do not
  36. What are the for soft tissue injuries
    • 1. Avulsion
    • 2. Abrasion
    • 3. Laceration
    • 4. Puncture
  37. An entire piece of skin with portions of subcutaneous tissue and muscle is torn loose and is hanging byba flap. Collect the tissue, place in saline transport with patients.....?
    Avulsion
  38. Rug or mat burn. Loss of outer portion of the skin, caused by rubbing or scrapping...?
    Abrasion
  39. Cut by knife razor or sharp object. It may pass through the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, and nevers and blood vessels
    Laceration
  40. Knife, nail, gun shot .internal bleeding is more of a worry then external bleeding. Must be dealt with quickly.
    Puncture
  41. Steps for dealing with wounds
    Direct pressure with ____1____ material
    Elevate the wound
    Apply arterial ___2____ at pressure point
    Tourniquet ___3____ resort
    • 1. Sterile
    • 2. Pressure
    • 3. Last
  42. Wounds
    Keep wound ____1____, apply gauze or sterile pad and hold in place with cling type bandage. Pass on size and location wound to transporting personel
    1. Sterile
  43. Tourniquets
    Long term use will proboly result in the ___1___ of the appendage
    Use a ___2____ bandage or BP cuff never use small diameter rope / cord
    Never losen it let a doctor do it
    Leave the tournequit in plain view and write "___3___" on there head
    • 1. Loss
    • 2. Wide
    • 3. TK
  44. Wounds
    _____1_____ impaled objects in place
    1. Leave
  45. Vomiting or bright red blood
    Dark borwn tar like stool
    Bright red blood flow from rectum
    Transport quickly, surgery is need
    All signs of what?
    Internal bleeding
  46. Restlessness and anxiety
    Weak, rapid pulse
    Cold moist skin
    Face, lips, ana nail beds are cyanotic(blue)
    Signs of what?
    Shock
  47. Shallow labored breaths
    Extreme thirst
    The sensation of needing to vomit
    Drop in BP
    Unconciousness
    All signs of what?
    Shock
  48. Shock treatment
    Constant attention of __1____'s
    ____2___ lower extremities
    Handle patient carefully and reassure
    Lay patient down as long as it dont make it harder for patient to ___3_____
    • 1. ABCs
    • 2. Elevate
    • 3. Breath
  49. Shock treatment
    __1_ food or liquid
    Administer ____2______
    IV
    May need pnuematic anti shock garmet
    Be aware of ____3___ stroke or heat exhaustion
    • 1. No
    • 2. Oxygen
    • 3. Heat
  50. Heat stroke
    ___1___ threatining aka sun stroke
    Caused by exposure and _____2______
    Failure of bodies heat regulatory mechanism. All sweating ____3_____.
    • 1. Life
    • 2. Dehydration
    • 3. Ceases
  51. Heat strike
    Body temp. Will be __1___ or higher
    ____2__ can occur
    In the early stages the ___3____ will be full and rapid then it will go to rapid and weak
    • 1. 105
    • 2. Coma
    • 3. Pulse
  52. Heat stoke
    Use __1__ sheets or compresses, give IV to restore body moisture content
    ___2____ and emergency care are the highest priority
    • 1.Wet
    • 2. Oxygen
  53. Heat Exhaustion
    Exposure to ___1___
    Over worked in __2___ enviroment
    Dizziness , faintness, ___3___
    • 1. Heat
    • 2. Hot
    • 3. Nausea
  54. Heat exhastion
    Cool ashen __1___ skin
    ___2___ vitals
    Treat heat exhaustion like ___3___
    • 1. Moist
    • 2. Normal
    • 3. Shock
  55. Sprains
    Caused by ___1___ or moving a joint beyond its normal range
    ligaments become ___2____ around the joints
    ____3____ can occur- displacement of one or more bones at a joint wich reults in impromper contact
    • 1. Twisting
    • 2. Stretched
    • 3. Dislocation
  56. Sprains
    Make patient comfortable
    Apply __1__ pack
    Imobilize ____2____
    Make sure there is no ___3____
    Get prompt medical attention
    • 1. Ice
    • 2. Joint
    • 3. Fracture
  57. Fractures
    ___1___ in a bone
    ___2___ where there is a joint, sharply locallized tenderness at break area, swelling and ___3_____
    • 1. Break
    • 2. Deformatiy
    • 3. Discoloration
  58. What are the two types of fractures?
    Closed and open
  59. Fractures
    Closed/ Simple-__1____ has not been broken
    Open/compound-bone __2___ the skins, It can break the skin then retract to were you cant see it
    Body disease can _3___ bones to a break point
    • 1. Skin
    • 2. Through
    • 3. Weaken
  60. Splinting
    Use on ___1___ and disloctions, when in doubt __2___
    • 1. Fractures
    • 2. Splint
  61. Splinting steps
    Gently apply __1___(pulling) to lengthen the limb, attempt to straighen deformity
    Cover __2__ with sterila material
    Pad area to reduce pressure
    _3_ ____ push protruding bones back in
    • 1. Traction
    • 2. Wounds
    • 3. Do not
  62. Exerts continous traction pressure on a limb, usualy used on the femur(long thigh bone), do not remove once on
    Traction splint
  63. Splinting
    Bones are rich in __1___, thus blood loss can be significant, bones can also cut ___2___. If this happens lay the patient flat, reasuure the patient, keep them still, treat them like a __3___ patient
    • 1. Blood
    • 2. Arteries
    • 3. Shock
  64. Dislocation
    Occurs only at the area of a __1___
    Joint areas consist of cartilage, ___2___, and tendons. When there structual integrity is damaged, the bone ends ___3___.
    • 1. Joint
    • 2. Ligaments
    • 3. Seperate
  65. Dislocation Sighns/symptoms
    ___1__ deformity
    Pain and swelling with ___2___ at all times
    __3__ of use or movement
    • 1. Joint
    • 2. Movement
    • 3. Loss
  66. 3 Type of burns?
    • 1. Heat
    • 2. Chemical agents
    • 3. Radiation
  67. Burns
    Burnse are classified by __1___ and severity
    Object in treatment of burns is to __2___ pain, prevent contamination and treat for __3___.
    • 1. Size
    • 2. Relieve
    • 3. Shock
  68. Outer layer of the skin
    1. Epidermis
  69. Inner layer of the skin under the epidermis
    Dermis
  70. Thermal Burns
    Severity determined by ___1___ of skin involvolved and __2____ of skin injured
    • 1. Amount
    • 2. Depth
  71. Burn
    Outer layer of the skin, reddening of the skin?
    First degree
  72. Burn
    Damge into but not through the Dermis,blister
    Second Degree
  73. Burns
    Damge to full thickness of the skin destroyed down to the subcutaneous fat. Chared or browned skin may appear white.
    Charred blood vessels mayb appear through the skin. Burns can go even deeper then the fat, getting into muscle and even burning through bone
    Third Degree
  74. CRIDICAL thermal burns
    __1__ degree involving hands, feet,face
    more then _2_% of body surface
    all burns involving ____3___ tract
    • 1. Third
    • 2. 10
    • 3. Respitory
  75. CRIDICAL thermal Burns
    _1__ degree burns more then _2_% of the body
    the very ___3__ or the very old
    patients with ___4___ or chronic medical conditions
    • 1. 2nd
    • 2. 30%
    • 3. young
    • 4. dieseases
  76. MODERATE thermal burns
    __1__ degree burns conering _2_-__% of the body that do not involve hands, feet or face
    __3___ degree burns involving less then _4_-__% of the body surface
    • 1. third
    • 2. 2-10%
    • 3. second
    • 4. 15-30%
  77. MODERATE thermal burns
    _1__ degree burns involving _2_-__% of the body surface
    • 1. first
    • 2. 50-75%
  78. MINOR thermal burns
    __1__ degree less than _2_% of the body
    __3___ degree less then _4_% of the body
    __5__ degree less then _6_% of the body
    • 1. third
    • 2. 2%
    • 3. second
    • 4. 15%
    • 5. first
    • 6. 50%
  79. Treatment for thermal burns
    ___1___ put a form of grease on thermal burns this includes butter, lard, mineral oil or ointment
    Immerse burns in cool water for _2_-__ minutes
    cover with ___3___ dressing
    • 1. Never
    • 2. 2-5
    • 3. sterile
  80. Treatment for thermal burns
    Continue to apply cool, __1__ applications
    administer __2___
    start _3_ to restore fluids
    transport
    • 1. wet
    • 2. oxygen
    • 3. IV
  81. Chemical burns
    Strong acid or __1___ comes in contact with skin
    Flush throughly with __2___
    Apply __3____ dressing, transport
    • 1. alkali
    • 2. water
    • 3. sterile
  82. Chemical burns
    Acid in the eye- flush with water for at least _1_ minutes
    Alkalie in the eye- flush with water for at leas _2_-__ minutes
    Never use a chemical antidote in the _3__, transport at one
    • 1. 5
    • 2. 15-20
    • 3. eyes
  83. Chemical burns
    chemical compound containing electro positive hydrogen ions. has sour taste. neutralized by mixture with base
    acid
  84. Chemical burns
    basic properties of salt or metals capable of causing severe burns
    Alkali
  85. Radiation burns
    Caused by __1___ and solar radiation, they can be severe
    you may not know you were exposed to damaging __2____, it damages and kills cells
    • 1. nuclear
    • 2. radiation
  86. Radiation burns
    the __1___ of the source, the type of radiation, the ___2____, the distance from the source and the area of the body receiving the radiation are all factors that effect the ___3____ of the burn
    • 1. strength
    • 2. duration
    • 3. severity
  87. Radiation burns
    Rescuers should dispose of ___1___, scrub the body throughly and do a body radiation check with ____2____ instuments
    • 1. clothes
    • 2. electronic
  88. a gland located behind the stomach that makes insulin
    pancreas
  89. a protein hormone secreted into the blood, used in treatment of diabetes
    insulin
  90. shock produced when an excessive amount of insulin is administrated
    insulin shock
  91. Diabetes mellitus
    if glucose(sugar) rises to an ___1___ level the excess sugar is passed in the urine, ___2____ urination and great thirst are symptoms
    • 1. abnormal
    • 2. frequent
  92. Diabetes Mellitus
    to overcome the lack of sugar, the body draws upon stored fats. this in turn causes an increased acidity in the blood. the increase in acids and decrease in fluids causes the coma. Common if the person has eaten but has not yet taken their insulin
    Diabetic coma
  93. Diabetes mellius-coma sighns/symptoms
    __1__ hunger
    dehydration
    sweet or fruity __2__
    rapid weak __3___
    • 1. air
    • 2. odor
    • 3. pulse
  94. Diabetes mellius-coma sighns/symptoms
    slightly low _1_
    various degres of unresponsiveness to _____2______
    (give oral glucose or IV ___3____)
    • 1. BP
    • 2. unconsiousness
    • 3. dextrose
  95. Insulin shock
    too much __1___
    patient dident __2__ enough
    patient took __3__ but dident eat yet
    to much __4____
    • 1. insulin
    • 2. eat
    • 3. insulin
    • 4. exercise
  96. Insulin shock sighns/symptoms
    normal _____- look if patient is unconscio1us
    pale moist __2__
    full rapid___3___
    • 1.resperation
    • 2. skin
    • 3. pulse
  97. Insulin shock sighns/symptoms
    dizzy and ___1____
    normal _2_
    unconsciosness
    (they need sugar and transported imeediatley, give oral glucose or IV dextrose, patient in insulin shock should respond within a _3___ minutes
    • 1. headache
    • 2. BP
    • 3. few
  98. Druge use
    heroin, opium, marphine, methadone, demroal are examples of what?
    cns depressants
  99. Od on CNS depressants and you will be comatose with ___1___ and slow respirations
    Adequate resperations with be ___2___ concern
    • 1. shallow
    • 2. primary
  100. LSD (acid), peyote, mescaline are examples of what?
    (approach cautiously)
    Hallucinogen
  101. Druge use
    induce vomiting if less then _1_ minutes has elapsed since ingestion
    constantly __2___ and talk to someone who is sleepy, slugish or has slowed respirations
    • 1. 30
    • 2. shake
  102. Smoke inhalation
    average breathing rate _1_-__ a minute
    smoke inhalation stops __2____
    • 1. 12-20
    • 2. alveoli
  103. the air sacs of the lungs that are one of the components that facilitate oxygenation of the blood. they remove oxygen from the air we breath and transfer it to blood pumped throughout the body by the heart
    Alveoli
  104. Smoke inhalation
    a frothy discharge of blood at the __1__ and __2__ may occur
    caughing takes places
    __3___ failure can occure
    • 1. nose
    • 2. mouth
    • 3. cardiac
  105. Smoke inhalation
    Give ___1___
    watch __2__'s
    • 1.oxygen
    • 2. abc's
  106. Most people die from __1__ and hot gas, not from burning
    nightime fire go for the ___2____. look in bedroooms under beds and in ___3____.
    • 1. smoke
    • 2. bedrooms
    • 3. closets
  107. children tend to hide in __1___ spaces
    __2___ and systematic search, take no unecessary rick and danger
    __3___ or carry victims
    • 1. confined
    • 2. quick
    • 3. drag
  108. If _1_ firefighters are there use a chair or ___2__ to move victims, this works good on heavy people
    ___3__ safety is first
    • 1. 2
    • 2. table
    • 3. your
  109. Water rescue search
    Throughly evaluate the water this is ongoin
    1.
    2.
    3. ______ and ______ hazards
    • 1. current
    • 2. depth
    • 3. underwater and surface
  110. Water rescue searchThroughly evaluate the water this is ongoin
    1.
    2. ________ contaminants
    do not enter the water until ___3___/______ is dressed and in position
    • 1. visability
    • 2. hazardous
    • 3. backup/safety
  111. were to start the search will depend on : were the person was last___1___or it could depend on were and objected was ___2___ in the water
    when using ___3____ search patterns they should overlap the search area to ensure a throrough search is done
    • 1. seen
    • 2. placed
    • 3.mulitple
  112. what are the 2 types of search patterns?
    sweep and parallel
  113. the diver in the water who hols onto the search line and performs the search
    primary search diver
  114. a 1/4 inch or larger polyprophylene line ins a stuff bag
    search line
  115. line tender(in charge of search)
    ___1__ based person
    holds __2___ line
    directs movement of __3___ diver
    • 1. shore
    • 2. search
    • 3. primary
  116. line tender(in charge of the search)
    conducts the ___1___ pattern
    record divers _2__ pressure
    responseable for divers ___3___
    record how long diver in __4___ water
    (consinder the diver a tool the tender directs through signals from the search line)
    • 1. search
    • 2. air
    • 3. safety
    • 4. under
  117. Sweep pattern
    line tender stands in a fixed position on the shore moving the diver back and forth in an __1___
    used for ___2__ searche areas and were there are underwater obsticles
    diver swims out a predetermined distance with a loop of the ___3__ rope in his hand
    • 1. arc
    • 2. smaller
    • 3. search
  118. Sweer pattern
    on direction on the line tender the diver submerges. The __1___ will take out some slack and tie a loop at that point holding it in their hand
    The diver will swim a predetermined direction keeping the line ___2__ until the tender wants to change direction, he will tell the __3__ to stop and change directions
    • 1. tender
    • 2. taught
    • 3. diver
  119. Sweep pattern
    the __1__ the object the diver is searching for more line can be released. when enough line is released the tender will tie another loop
    ___2___ the preocess
    • 1. larger
    • 2. repeat
  120. Parallel pattern
    line tender moves back and forth on the shore staying __1___ with the diver
    used for larger area search that is free of ____2____
    can be used when more then one __3___ is on the rope to extend the search
    • 1. parallel
    • 2. obstacles
    • 3. diver
  121. Parallel pattern
    ___1__ rope signals are used andonly the line tender walks with the diver up and down the shore, they stop and signal the diver, take up needed __2___ and change direction of travel
    ___3___ should be placed on shore at each end of the search pattern
    • 1. same
    • 2. slack
    • 3. markers
  122. Rope signals
    Tender to diver
    1 tug-
    2 tugs-
    3 tugs-
    • 1. are you ok?
    • 2. stop, change direction, take out line
    • 3. stop and surface
  123. Rope signals
    Divers reply to tender
    1 tug-
    2 tugs-
    3 tugs-
    4 tugs-
    • 1. i am ok
    • 2. need more line
    • 3. found the target
    • 4. help

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