Movement Disorders

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  1. Parkinson's Disease Clinical Features
    • rest tremor
    • bradykinesia
    • rigidity
    • asymmetric onset
    • substantial improvement with levodopa
  2. Parkinson's Disease Dx
    no reliable diagnostic test, Dx purely on clinical grounds
  3. Parkinsons Disease Macroscopic Pathology
    loss of pigment in substantia nigra and locus coeruleus
  4. Parkinson's Disease Microscopic Pathology
    cell loss in substantia nigra, other brainstem nuclei, nucleus basalis of meynert, hypothalamus, sympathetic ganglia, olfactory bulb

    lewy bodies and lewy neurites
  5. Parkinson's Disease Pathophysiology
    Lewy bodies contain alpha-synuclein, ubiquitin and some other proteins and are involved in pathogenesis
  6. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Clinical Features
    • parkinsonism
    • supranuclear gaze palsy
    • prominent truncal rigidity
    • dysarthria, dysphagia early
    • progressive (8 years until wheelchair)
  7. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Macroscopic Pathology
    atrophy, depigmentation
  8. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Microscopic Pathology
    neuronal loss, neurofibrillary tangles, other tau deposits
  9. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Pathophysiology
    tau gene mutations (4-repeat isoforms) of tau present

    signs of oxidative stress at autopsy
  10. Corticobasal Degeneration Clinical features
    • clumsiness, stiffness, or jerking of one arm
    • dystonia
    • hemispatial neglect when left body affected
  11. Corticobasal Degeneration Macroscopic Pathology
    • atrophy frontal and parietal cortex, often asymmetric
    • depigmentation substantia nigra and locus coeruleus
  12. Corticobasal Degeneration Microscopic Pathology
    • tau inclusions
    • swollen neurons; resemble those of Picks disease
  13. Multiple System Atrophy Clinical Features
    combination of parkinsonism, cerebella dysfunction, autonomic insufficiency
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Movement Disorders
2011-11-15 23:14:16
Movement Disorders

Movement Disorders
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