Anatomical Terms

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Anatomical Terms
2011-11-17 00:24:07
Anatomical Terms

Anatomical Terms
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  1. Anatomical Position
    To stand erect with arms at the sides and palms of the hands turned forward
  2. Prone
    Forearm and hand turned palm side down; body lying face down
  3. Supine
    Body lying flat with face up
  4. Anterior
    Situated in front of or directed toward the front
  5. Posterior/Dorsal
    Rear or back
  6. Superior
    Upper, nearer to the crown of the head
  7. Inferior
    Lower, farther from the crown of the head
  8. Frontal/Coronal
    Divides body into anterior/posterior parts
  9. Transverse
    Right angles to long axis; divides body into upper and lower parts
  10. Midline
    Divides the body into left and right sides
  11. External
  12. Internal
  13. Superficial
    Nearer to the surface
  14. Deep
    Farther from the surface
  15. Medial
    Nearer to the midline
  16. Lateral
    Farther from the midline
  17. Proximal
    Nearer to the limb root
  18. Distal
    Farther from the limb root
  19. Palmer/Volar
    Palm side of the hand or body
  20. Plantar
    Sole side of the foot
  21. Abduction
    Draws away from the middline
  22. Adduction
    Draws towards the midline
  23. Flexion
    Bending or angulations
  24. Extension
    To straighten
  25. Inverted
    Turned inward
  26. Everted
    Turned outward
  27. Depressor
    Applied to muscle, that which lowers a structure
  28. Levator
    Applied to muscle, that which raises a structure
  29. Supinator
    Turning of the palm of the hand upwards by lateral forarm rotation
  30. Pronator
    Turning of the palm of the hand downward by medial forearm rotation
  31. Adnexa
    Refers to appendages of an organ. Ex. Ovaries and fallopian tubes
  32. Afebrile
    without fever
  33. Ambulatory
    Able to move about; not confined to bed
  34. Aneurysm
    A widening of a blood vessel due to pressure on weakened tissues causing formation of a sac of blood that may become clotted
  35. Angina
    A severe, often constricting pain, usually referring to the chest that occurs when your heart does not get enough blood
  36. Anasarca
    Extensive subcutaneous edema; an expression of a generalized edema such as occurs in congestive heart failure. There is diffuse subcutaneous swelling, which is cool to the touch and retains the imprint of a fingertip after pressure is release - hence 'pitting edema'
  37. Aphasia
    Condition characterized by either partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or using written words. A person with aphasia may have difficulty speaking, reading, writing, recognizing names of objects, or understanding what other people have said. Aphasia is caused by a brain injury, as may occur during a traumatic accident or when the brain is deprived of oxygen during a stroke
  38. Appendicitis
    Inflammation of the appendix
  39. Appendectomy
    Surgical removal of the appendix
  40. Arrhythmia
    Abnormal heart rhythm
  41. Artery
    Blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
  42. Arthralgia
    Severe pain in a joint
  43. Articulation
    Connection between bones
  44. Ascites
    Accumulation of serious fluid in the abdominal cavity
  45. Atelectasis
    Partial or total collapse of lung tissue
  46. Avulsion
    A forcible pulling away of a part or structure
  47. Axilla
  48. Bradycardia
    Unusually slow heart beat/rate (<60 bpm)
  49. Bradypnea
    Abnormally slow breathing (<12 breaths per min)
  50. Bronchitis
    Inflammation of the bronchi, usually infectious
  51. Bronchiolitis
    Inflammation of the bronchioloes, the smallest air passages of the lung. The term usually refers to acute viral bronchiolitis, a common disease in infancy. This is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
  52. Bruit
    A murmur or sound heard in auscultation
  53. Cachectic
    State of general ill appearance and malnutrition
  54. Cardiomegaly
    Enlargement of the heart
  55. Cellulitis
    Inflammation of subcutaneous, loose connective tissue; skin infection
  56. Cerumen
    Ear wax
  57. Cervical
    Pertaining to the neck or to the cerix of the uterus
  58. Cholecystectomy
    Surgical removal of the gallbladder
  59. Cholecystitis
    Inflammation of the gallbladder
  60. Cholelithiasis
    Production gall stones
  61. Cirrhosis
    Inflammation of an organ by degenerative changes, especially the liver
  62. Colectomy
    Excision of part of the large intestine or colon
  63. Colostomy
    Surgical procedure that provides an opening between the colon and the abdominal wall
  64. Complication
    An infrequent and unfavorable evolution of a disease, a health condition, or a medical treatment
  65. Condylar, Condyle
    A rounded projection on a bone, usually for articulation with another bone
  66. Conjunctiva
    Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball
  67. Contusion
    A mechainical injury causing hemorrhages beneath unbroken skin; bruise
  68. Cornea
    Transparent coat of the eyeball covering the iris and pupil, allowing light into the eye
  69. Costochondritis
    Or Tietze's Syndrome is a benign inflammation of one or more of the costal cartilages
  70. Crepitance
    A crackling or grating sound, usually of bones
  71. Cyanotic
    Pertaining to a bluish or slatelike skin color
  72. Debridement
    Removal of foreign matter or dead tissue from a wound
  73. Dehiscence
    A seperation of layers usually of a surgical incision
  74. Dentition
    The teeth in situ or in the dental arch
  75. Dermis
    True skin, beneath the epidermis
  76. Diaphoresis
    Excessive or profuse sweating or perspiration
  77. Diarrhea
    An abnormal, frequent discharge of fluid fecal matter from the bowel
  78. Differential Diagnosis
    A diagnosis of symptoms of two or more diseases by comparison
  79. Dorsiflexion
    Backward flexion, as in bending backward either a hand or foot
  80. Dysmenorrhea
    Painful menstruation
  81. Dyspareunia
    Painful intercourse
  82. Dyspepsis
  83. Dysphagia
    Difficulty swallowing
  84. Dysphasia
    Loss of or deficiency in the power to understand language as a result of injury or disease to the brain
  85. Dyspnea
    Difficult and labored breathing, shortness of breath
  86. Dysuria
    Painful urination
  87. Ecchymosis
    Hemorrhagic, non-elevated, irregularly-formed, discolored area of skin caused by seepage of blood beneath the epidermis (A bruise!)
  88. Eczema
    Inflammatory condition of the skin which may be acute or chronic, characterized by itching or burning, tiny papules and vesicles, oozing, crusting, and scaling
  89. Edema
    Swelling of body tissues due to an excessive accumulation of fluid in connective tissue or a serous cavity
  90. Edentulous
    Without teeth
  91. Effusion
    Escape of fluid into a cavity
  92. Emaciate
    To become extremely thin or lean; wasting
  93. Embolism
    Obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot of blood or foreign substance
  94. Emesis
  95. Epididymitis
    Inflammation or infection of the epididymis. In this long coiled tube attached to the upper part of each testicle, spem mature and are stored before ejactulation
  96. Epitaxis
    Hemorrhage from the nose; nose bleeding
  97. Erythema
    Unusual redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion
  98. Etiology
    Cause of disease and their mode of operation
  99. Euthymic
    Pertaining to a normal mood in which the range of emotions is neither depressed nor highly elevated
  100. Exacerbation
  101. Exanthem
    Widespread rash seen most in children
  102. Exudate
    A fluid with a high content of protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation
  103. Fascia
    Fibrous membrane of connective tissue supporting and separating muscles and body organs
  104. Febrile
    Pertaining to having a fever
  105. Fluorescein
    Red, crystalline substance used in diagnostic examination of the eye to detect corneal lesions, abrasions, and foreign bodies
  106. Fontanel
    Any of the spaces closed by membranous structures between the uncompleted angles of the parietal bones and the neighboring bones of a fetal or young skull
  107. Fossa
    A hollow or depressed area
  108. Fundus
    The large, upper end of the uterus; also the bottom aperture of the internal surface of a hollow organ (e.g. eye, uterus, stomach)
  109. Gastroenteritis
    (also known as gastro, gastric flu, and stomach flu although unrelated to influenza) refers to inflammation of the GI tract, involving both the stomach and the small intestine and resulting in acute diarrhea. The inflammation is most often caused by infection with certain viruses, less often by bacteria or their toxins, parasites, or adverse reactions to something in the diet or medication
  110. Gastrstomy
    A surgical procedure for inserting a tube through the abdomen wall and into the stomach. The tube is used for feeding or drainage.
  111. Gingiva
  112. Grand mal
    Severe epileptic attack characterized by convulsions, stupor, and temporary loss of consciousness (more frequently referred to as tonic-clonic seirzures)
  113. Gravid
    Being pregnant
  114. Hallucinations
    The apparent, often strong subjective perception of an object or situation even when no such stimulus or situation is present; may be visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile
  115. Hemangioma
    Tumor consisting of blood vessels
  116. Hematemesis
    Vomiting of blood
  117. Hematochezia
    Blood in the stool
  118. Hematoma
    Swelling of blood which occurs in an organ or tissue resulting from ruptured blood vessels
  119. Hematuria
    Blood in the urine
  120. Hemoptysis
    Spitting of blood; bloodstained sputum
  121. Hemorrhage
    Excessive or profuse bleeding
  122. Hemostat
    A hemostat or hemostatic clamp is a surgical tool, which resembles a set of scissors with a locking clamp replacing the blade. A hemostat is commonly used in emergency medicine to control bleeding, especially from a torn blood vessel, until sutures or other surgical techniques can repair the bleeding. The process of halting bleeding is called hemostasis
  123. Hemothorax
    Blood fluid present in the pleural cavity
  124. Hepatosplenomegaly
    Enlargement of the liver and spleen
  125. Hydrocele
    A pathological accumulation of serious fluid in a bodily cavity
  126. Hyperkalemia
    An abnormally high concentration of potassium ions in the blood; high potassium
  127. Hypernatremia
    An abnormally high plasma concentration of sodium ions; high sodium (>140 mM, normal range is 136-140mM)
  128. Hypertension
    Persistently high arterial blood pressure
  129. Hyponatremia
    This electrolyte disturbance exists when the sodium concentration in the plasma falls below 135 mM
  130. Hypotension
    Persistently low arterial blood pressure
  131. Icteric
    (Jaundice) The yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclerae (white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia
  132. Ileus
    The presense of air/fluid levels on abdominal X-rays
  133. Induration
    Act of hardening; a specific area of hardened tissue
  134. Infarct
    Necrotic area of tissue following cessation of the blood supply
  135. Infiltrate
    To penetrate the interstices of a tissue or substance
  136. Inguinal
    Pertaining to the groin area
  137. Intussusception
    (A blockage of the intestine) a medical condition in which a part of the small intestine has ingavinated into another section of intestine, similar to the way in which the parts of a collapsible telescope slide into one another
  138. Ischemia
    Temporary and localized anemia due to resticting circulation to a part
  139. Interstice
    A small interval, space, or gap in a tissue, organ, or structure
  140. Joint
    Articulation of junction between two or more bones or cartilage
  141. Keloid
    Scar formation consisting of dense tissue
  142. Lacrimal
    To do with tears
  143. Ligament
    Fibrous tissue, binding bones together
  144. Lingual
    Belonging to the tongue
  145. Loculations
    The presence of numerous small spaces or cavities
  146. Lymphadenitis
    Is the inflammation of a lymph node
  147. Lymphadenopathy
    A chronic, abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually associated with disease
  148. Macule
    Small colored spot on the skin
  149. Malaise
    Generalized discomfort or weakness
  150. Malleolus
    Projections on either side of the ankle joint from the lower leg bones
  151. Malocclusion
    Imperfect closure or meeting of opposing teeth
  152. Mastectomy
    Surgical excision of the breast
  153. Melena
    Black tarry stool
  154. Meningitis
    Inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. Meningitis may develop in response to a number of causes, most commonly bacteria, viruses, and other infectious agents
  155. Meningismus
    The triad of nuchal rigidity, photophobia, and heachache. It is a sign of irritation of the meninges
  156. Menorrhagia
    Excessively heavy menstrual flow with cycles of normal length (hypermenorrhea)
  157. Mittelschmerz
    Abdominal pain occurring at the time of ovulation resulting from irritation of the peritoneum by bleeding from the ovulation site
  158. Mottled
    Marked by spots or blotches of different colors or shades
  159. Myalgia
    Muscular pain
  160. Mycoplasma
    A genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall. Because they lack a cell wall, they are unaffected by some antibiotics such as penicillin
  161. Nares
  162. Neuralgia
    Sharp pain along the course of a nerve or several nerves
  163. Nystagmus
    Involuntary rapid eye movements
  164. Occiput
    Back of the skull
  165. Odynophagia
    Painful swallowing
  166. Olecranon
    Large bony projection of the ulna forming the elbow joint
  167. Ophtalmalgia
    Pain in the eye
  168. Os
    Opening/orifice (ex. cervix, mouth)
  169. Palate
    Roof of the mouth; the partition seperating the nasal and oral caivties
  170. Pallor
    Paleness to the skin
  171. Palpable
    Able to be touched or earily perceived
  172. Para
    Woman who has given birth to one or more viable offspring; the number of viable offspring born by a woman
  173. Paresthesia
    Abnormal tactile sensation described as creeping, burning, tingling, or numbness
  174. Paronychia
    Inflammation of the tissue surrounding the nail
  175. Paroxysmal
    Describes a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms
  176. Petechia
    Tiny red spots occuring on the skin caused by a small amount of escaping blood
  177. Photophobia
    Abnormal intolerance to light
  178. Pleurisy
    Painful inflammation of the pleura
  179. Pneumonia
    An inflammatory illness of the lung
  180. Pneumothorax
    Presence of air or gas in the pleural space that may occur spontaneously, due to trauma, or deliberately introduced in a collapsed lung
  181. Popliteal fossa
    The depression in the posterior region of the knee (the back of the knee)
  182. Post-ictal
    Postictal state as manifestions of seizure induced reversible alterations in neuron function but not structure. Post seizure symptoms include exhaustion, inability to think clearly, migraine
  183. Psoriasis
    Chronic, non-contagious disease characterized by inflamed lesions covered with silvery-white scabs of dead skin
  184. Purulent
    Consisting of matter or pus; resembling pus
  185. Pyloric Stenosis
    (or infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis) is a condition that causes severe vomiting in the first few months of life
  186. Rale
    Abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation
  187. Rhinorrhea
    Thin, watery discharge from the nose
  188. Rhonchi
    A whistling or snoring sound heard on auscultation of the chest when air channels are partially obstructed; the pleural of rhoncus
  189. Sciatic
    Pertaining to the ischium or hip
  190. Sclera
    Dense fibrous opaque outer coat enclosing the eyeball except the part covered by the cornea
  191. Seizures
    • 1. The sudden attack or recurrence of a disease
    • 2. A single episode of epilepsy, often named for the type it represents
  192. Sepsis
    Presence of pathological microorganisms or their toxins in the blood
  193. Shaft
    Long, slender portion of a long bone
  194. Sputum
    Spittle, any mixed matter with saliva that is expectorated through the mouth
  195. Stellate
    Star-shaped; radiating from the center
  196. Stenosis
    Narrowing of a body opening or passage
  197. Stool Guaiac
    This test detects the presence of fecal occult blood
  198. Stridor
    Harsh or high-pitched respiratory sound, caused by obstruction of the air passages
  199. Supination
    Rotation of either the forearm or the foot
  200. Syncope
    Loss of consciousness; faint
  201. Tachycardia
    Abnormal rapid heart beat
  202. Tachypnea
    Extremely rapid respiration
  203. Thoracostomy
    Procedure to install a chest tube
  204. Thoracotomy
    Surgical cutting into the chest wall
  205. Tinea
    Any of many different superficial fungal infections of the skin
  206. Tinnitis
    A ringing in the ears
  207. Tonsillectomy
    Surgical excision of a tonsil
  208. Tosion
    The twisting of a bodily organ on its own axis (e.g. ovary/fallopian tubes, testicle/vas deferens, etc.)
  209. Trismus
    Spasm of the masticatory muscles; difficulty opening mouth
  210. Turgor
    Condition of being distended or swollen; normal fullness
  211. Urticaria
    Hives or wheals which are either redder or paler than the surrounding area and are often attended by itching
  212. Vein
    Vessel carrying deoxygenated blood to the heart, exluding pulmonary veins
  213. Vertigo
    Condition of dizziness, often described as a room spinning sensation
  214. Wheal
    Round, localized area of edema on the skin attended by severe itching which vanishes quickly
  215. Wheeze
    Difficult breathing with a wistling sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of the repiratory passageways