Chapter 6,7,8

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  1. Life Cycle
    growth and reproduction of an individual
  2. Gametes are produces by the process of
  3. Chromosomes
    bundle of genes
  4. Gene
    Segments of DNA that code for proteins
  5. Homologous pair
    each set of equivalent chromosomes
  6. What drives evolution?
  7. Segregation
    Separation of pairs of alleles during production of gametes
  8. independent assortment
    random alignment
  9. dizygotic
    fraternal twins
  10. monozygotic
    identical twins
  11. genotype
    both traiths you have (what is possible)
  12. phenotype
    the trait you see
  13. hetrozygous
    2 different alleles for one gene
  14. homozygous
    2 of same alleles for 1 gene
  15. codominance
    more than 1 dominant allele in a gene
  16. incomplete dominance
    dominant allele may have different affects
  17. how does Huntington's differ from cystic fibrosis in genetics?
    only 1 copy of the gene is needed
  18. heritability
    which portion of variation within a population can be explained by genetic differentiation
  19. polygenic traits
    traits influenced by many genes
  20. artificial selection
    controlling reproduction of individual organisms to influence phenotype in next generation
  21. regulating amounts of protein produced by a cell is know as regulating gene expression
  22. protein synthesis
    using the instructions carried by a gene to build a particular protein
  23. the structure of a protein is the result of the order of amino acids
  24. How is RNA different from DNA?
    RNA uses uracil instead of thymine, RNA is single stranded and DNA is double, RNA can eave the nucleus
  25. What carries instructions from the DNA
    RNA or ribonucleic acid
  26. List 2 processes for making proteins
    • transcription
    • translation
  27. Define RNA polymerase
    the enzyme that synthesizes RNA
  28. Define promoter
    The beginning of every gene
  29. How is mRNA formed?
    RNA polymerase unzips the DNA strand and uses it as a template to tie RNA nucleotides in the complementary pattern
  30. What are the types of RNA?
    • Ribosomal RNA
    • Messenger RNA
    • transfer RNA
  31. What are the steps of translation to make a protein?
    Messenger RNA attaches to the ribosome and transfer RNA brings the amino acid to the ribosome. The codon on the mRNA matches with anticodon of the tRNA ensuring the right amino acid placement in the peptide chain that will eventually be a complete protein
  32. Redundancy
    the fact that more than one condon can code for the same amino acied
  33. Codons can not code for more than one amino acid
  34. how does the protein synthesis end?
    when the ribosome hits the stop codon on the mRNA
  35. The genetic code is universal and all organisms decode the same gene to produce the same protein
  36. A mutation can have no effect on protein synthesis
  37. frameshift mutation
    all necleotides located after an insertion or deletion of a base that regroups the codons into completely different codes and thereby creating non-functioning protein
  38. transcription happens where
    the nucleus
  39. translation happens where?
    the cytoplasm
  40. cloning
    making many copies of a gene
  41. genome
    information about al of the genes present in a particular organism
  42. plasmid
    a circular piece of DNA that normally exists separate from the bacterial chromosome, It allows for genetic modifications
  43. bacteria can now produce human insulin
  44. genetically modified organism
    When a gene from one organism is incorporated into the genome of another organism
  45. stem cells
    cells that are able to produce many different kins of tissues because they are undifferentiated
  46. Not all stem cells come from in vitro fertilization
    true - adult stem cells exist
  47. forensic science
    Science used in legal system
  48. what is the phenotype ration of a dihybrid cross punnett square?
  49. pleiotropy
    ability of a single gene to cause multiple effects on a phenotrype
  50. Define X inactvation
    inactivation of one or 2 chromosomes in x x female gene
  51. hemophilia
    no clotting factor 8
  52. sex determiniation is because of ___ chromosomes
  53. X-linked genes
    any gene located on x chromosomes
  54. 3 examples of X linked genes
    • cystic fibrosis
    • color blindness
    • hunington's
  55. Define pedigree
    family tree that follows the inheritance of genetic traits for many generations
  56. DNA fingerprinting
    genetic ID techniques that take advantage of differences in DNA sequences between all people other than identical twins
Card Set:
Chapter 6,7,8
2011-11-22 05:01:17
Human Biology Chapters

Chapter 6,7,8
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