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growth and reproduction of an individual
Gametes are produces by the process of
bundle of genes
Segments of DNA that code for proteins
each set of equivalent chromosomes
Separation of pairs of alleles during production of gametes
both traiths you have (what is possible)
the trait you see
2 different alleles for one gene
2 of same alleles for 1 gene
more than 1 dominant allele in a gene
dominant allele may have different affects
how does Huntington's differ from cystic fibrosis in genetics?
only 1 copy of the gene is needed
which portion of variation within a population can be explained by genetic differentiation
traits influenced by many genes
controlling reproduction of individual organisms to influence phenotype in next generation
regulating amounts of protein produced by a cell is know as regulating gene expression
using the instructions carried by a gene to build a particular protein
the structure of a protein is the result of the order of amino acids
How is RNA different from DNA?
RNA uses uracil instead of thymine, RNA is single stranded and DNA is double, RNA can eave the nucleus
What carries instructions from the DNA
RNA or ribonucleic acid
List 2 processes for making proteins
Define RNA polymerase
the enzyme that synthesizes RNA
The beginning of every gene
How is mRNA formed?
RNA polymerase unzips the DNA strand and uses it as a template to tie RNA nucleotides in the complementary pattern
What are the types of RNA?
- Ribosomal RNA
- Messenger RNA
- transfer RNA
What are the steps of translation to make a protein?
Messenger RNA attaches to the ribosome and transfer RNA brings the amino acid to the ribosome. The codon on the mRNA matches with anticodon of the tRNA ensuring the right amino acid placement in the peptide chain that will eventually be a complete protein
the fact that more than one condon can code for the same amino acied
Codons can not code for more than one amino acid
how does the protein synthesis end?
when the ribosome hits the stop codon on the mRNA
The genetic code is universal and all organisms decode the same gene to produce the same protein
A mutation can have no effect on protein synthesis
all necleotides located after an insertion or deletion of a base that regroups the codons into completely different codes and thereby creating non-functioning protein
transcription happens where
translation happens where?
making many copies of a gene
information about al of the genes present in a particular organism
a circular piece of DNA that normally exists separate from the bacterial chromosome, It allows for genetic modifications
bacteria can now produce human insulin
genetically modified organism
When a gene from one organism is incorporated into the genome of another organism
cells that are able to produce many different kins of tissues because they are undifferentiated
Not all stem cells come from in vitro fertilization
true - adult stem cells exist
Science used in legal system
what is the phenotype ration of a dihybrid cross punnett square?
ability of a single gene to cause multiple effects on a phenotrype
Define X inactvation
inactivation of one or 2 chromosomes in x x female gene
no clotting factor 8
sex determiniation is because of ___ chromosomes
any gene located on x chromosomes
3 examples of X linked genes
- cystic fibrosis
- color blindness
family tree that follows the inheritance of genetic traits for many generations
genetic ID techniques that take advantage of differences in DNA sequences between all people other than identical twins
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