Exam: Learning & Memory

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Exam: Learning & Memory
2011-11-15 23:01:37
Learning memory

Psychology 101
Show Answers:

  1. Who is strongly link to classical coniditioning?
    Ivan Pavlov
  2. Who is strongly linked to Operant Conditioning?
    B.F. Skinner
  3. Who is strongly linked to Law and Effect?
    Edward Thorndike
  4. Who is strongly linked to Little Albert
    John B Watson
  5. Who is strongly linked to Social Learning/Modeling Theory?
    Albert Bandura
  6. Who is strongly linked to cognitive maps?
    Edward C Tolmon
  7. Who is strongly linked to Insight Learning?
    Wolfgang Kohler
  8. Which form of learning was studied/discovered first according to our lectures?
    Classical Conditioning
  9. Instrumental Learning is another name for:
    Operant Conditioning
  10. Type 1 is another name for:
    Operant Learning
  11. In which form of learning do we say that a behavior is elicited?
    Classical Conditioning
  12. Recognize an example of Operant Conditioning
    A form of learning where the consequence of behavior leads to change the probability of it occurance; Strenghtens intensity, duration, and requency

    Example: You bite into and apple, the apple tastes good, you bite into the apple again.
  13. Recognize an example of Classical Conditioning
  14. Example of unconditioned reflex
    • Unconditioned = Natural/ NOT learned
    • Example: Hiccups, burping, blinking
  15. What is the basic difference between a conditioned and unconditioned reflex?
    • Conditioned - Learned
    • Unconditioned - Natural
  16. Conditioned Reflex
    Stimulus that changed meaning
  17. Recognize an example of positive reinforcement
    when a consequence of behavior leads to an increase
    in the probability of repeating (consequence are positive)
    Behavior increases due to an increase of pleasure

    eating candy increases pleasure; getting money for cleaning room increases pleasure
  18. In what order must the stimuli be presented in classical conditioning?
    Conditioned Stim (CS) -> Unconditioned Stim (UCS) -> To elicite a Conditioned Response (CR) similar to a UCR
  19. What is Primary Generalization?
    A form of Classical Conditioning where similar stim provides similar responses based on the physical stim
  20. What is Secondary Generalization?
    Form of Classical Conditioning based upon things with similar meaning/catagory
  21. What is flooding?
    A way to get over a negative association (Fear) by over exposing to it.
  22. What is extinction?
    Process of unlearning a learned response because the removal of the original source. Happens when the response to the CS dies out.
  23. What is systematic desensatization?
    A way of gradually removing a fear
  24. What is the fundamental differences between Primary and Secondary reinforcers
    Operant Conditioning

    • Primary- No learning involved (Food, water, ect)
    • Secondary - Learned through friends family and culture (Money, good grades, status)
  25. Punishment
    A negative consequence of a behavioe that leads to a temporary hold/decrease in that behavior
  26. Recognize example of positive reinforcement
    A consequence of a behavior that will most likely lead to the increase of that behavior

    "Get money for a good report card"
  27. Example of Negative Reinforcement
    A behavior that is strengthened because something negative or painful is removed
  28. What determins how strong a reinforcer is?
    The time between the conditoined stim and the conditioned response (Fixed 1:1)
  29. What is an intermittent reinforcement schedule?
    Variable schedule where sometimes the reinforcer is given and sometimes it isnt.
  30. What is the fundamental difference between an interval schedule and a ratio schedule?
    Interval schedule – Happens at any given time

    Ratio Schedule – 1:3 or 2:4 in any order
  31. What type of reinforcement schedule shapes a
    behavior the quickest?
    Fixed Ratio 1:1
  32. What is a successive approximation of a behavior?
    Shaping in the right direction to goal behavioe even it if isnt to par
  33. What is escape training/conditioning?
    Operant Conditioning in which the behavior is reinforced because it caused a negative event to stop
  34. What happens to a behavioe when Punishment is used?
    The behavior is temporarly reduced and frequency reduces
  35. What type of reinforcement schedule is more resistant to extinction?
    Intermitent Schedules (Longer to learn and Longer to forget)
  36. How does learning occur according to social modeling theory?
    The most important parts of our behavior are learned from other persons in society (family, friends and culture)
  37. What is an engram?
    Just another name for memory. That “Something” that remains after learning.
  38. What is a consolidation period?
    The gradual strengthening of chemical changes in synapses following learning experiences; The amount of time it takes to retain a memory
  39. What is episodic memory?
    The kind of LTM that stores information aboutexperiences that took place at specific times and in specific places (Don't remember until something jogs your memory about it)
  40. What is declarative memory?
    Declarativeis being able to describe something ( being able to describe a guitar but not how to play it)
  41. What is procedural memory?
    Memoryfor skills and other procedures (riding a bike, swimming ect)
  42. What are the characteristics of sensory memory?
    First stage of memory; in which an exact image of each sensory experience is held briefly until It can be processed. Large capacity VERY short term
  43. What do we confuse in short term memory?
    Things that sound alike
  44. What effects do stimulants have on memory formation?
    Enhance memory formation
  45. What neurotransmitter is associated with memory formation?
  46. What is proactive interference?
    When the recall of the past info interferes with recollation of new info
  47. What is retroactive interference?
    When new info interfers with the recollation of old info
  48. What is failure to consolidate?
    Failure to form a new physical memory(Biological memory)
  49. What is a repressed memory?
    A memory of a traumatic experience unconsciously retained in the mind and unavailable for recall
  50. What role does the hippocampus play in memory?
    Forms new memories
  51. What role does the amygdala play in memory?
    Involved in emotional memories
  52. What effect does alcohol play on memory?
    Kills brain cells and destroys memories
  53. What is anterograde amnesia?
    Having a difficult time forming new memories
  54. What is retrograde amnesia?
    Having difficulty recalling old memories