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Maxillary First Molar
- Oblique Ridge
- Has most prominent DL cusp of all maxillary molars
- Three roots splayed apart. DL largest.
- Cusp of Carabelli
Maxillary Second Molar
- Smaller DL cusp
- Three roots closer together
- No Cusp of Carabelli
Mandibular First Molar
- Five Cusps
- Two roots ( M wider than D).
- Distal inclination of roots
Mandibular Second Molar
- Four Cusps
- Two roots closer together (M and D)
- Mesial root wider than distal root.
- More occlusal surface is visible from the distal than from the mesial.
Maxillary First Premolar
- Two roots (buccal and lingual)
- Mesial marginal developmental groove and mesial concavity.
- Lingual cusp offset tot he mesial viewed fromt he lingual
- Prominent facial line angles.
Maxillary Second Premolar
- Single root
- Mesial marginal ridge more occlusally than distal marginal ridge.
- Occlusal table more rounded with less prominent facial line anges
Mandibular First Premolar
- Less prominent lingual cusp than buccal cusp.
- Mesiolingual developmental groove.
- The mesial marginal ridge runs at about 45 degrees to the long axis of the tooth.
- The distal marginal ridge runs perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth.
- From the occlusal aspect the tooth is sort of pear shaped.
Mandibular Second Premolar
- Both marginal ridges are perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth.
- Most of the time it has two lingual cusps (ML larger DL)
- Buccal and lingual cusps are nearly equal height.
- MI cusp ridge shorteer than DI cusp ridge
- From the labial aspect, the distal outline is shorter incisocervically and more rounded than the mesial outline.
- Prominent labial ridge with mesio- and distolabial developmental depressions on either side.
- On the lingual surface, ther is a marked convergence of the marginal ridges to form a very prominent cinfulum.
- Lingual ridge iwth shallow mesio-and distolingual fossae on either side.
- From the labial aspect, the mesial and distal margins are more parallel giving the crown a long, narrow appearance.
- The labial surface is flatter than the maxillary canine.
- The lingual surface is relatively undeveloped.
- Incisocervical length and MD width are most nearly equal.
- MI angle very sharp and DI angle only slightly rounded.
- Prominent cingulum with ridges extending into lingual fossa.
- Long root length relative to crown length.
- Labial surface mostly convex incisocervically and mesiodistally.
- Incisal angels are more rounded than the central incisor. The distoincisal angle is especially rounded.
- Lingual surface smooth, but may have lingual groove and lingual pit.
- Most symmetrical tooth when viewed from any aspect.
- To determine which is mesial check the CEJ
- There is a slight cingulum offset tot he distal.
- The distoincisal angle is more rounded than mesioincisal angle.
- From the incisal view the incisal edge curves to the lingual in the distal portion. This gives the tooth a twisted appearance on the root.
measure of how far the top incisor teeth are ahead of the bottom incisors
the extent of vertical overlap of the maxillary central incisors over the mandibular central incisors
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