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Soft, high pitch discontinuous popping sounds during inspiration caused by a delayed reopening of the airways.
What is the process of gas exchange from high concentration to low concentration?
A person with increased CO2 in the arterial blood is likely to have an increased area of dead space. Poor gas elimination is indicative of ________.
The measure of the force needed to expand or inflate the lungs is called________.
Compliance- also considerd the elasticity or expandability
Hemoptysis is coughing up of_______.
Orthopnea is difficulty breathing while______.
Laying horizontal. (however the medsurg book states any position except sitting upright)
Respiration is the ______ exchange and ________ is the movement of air in and out of the respiratory system.
A low pitched wheezing or snoring sound associated with partial airway obstruction is called ________.
In this disease the aveolar macrophages become altered and increase the risk for respiratory infections.
In normal breathing the volume of air inspired and expired with each breath is______.
Wheezing is the contiuous musical sounds associated with airway ________.
The normal adult tidal volume is _____mL.
500 or 5-10mL/kg.
Cells that play a key role in the inflammatory response of asthma are:
Residual volume can be increased with obstructive disease. (RV)The normal adult value is _______mL.
Vital capacity is the _______ volume of air exhaled from the point of maximum inspiration.
A disease that has air flow limitations,is progressive and has an abnormal inflammatory response is called______.
The presence of cough and sputum production for at least 3 months in two consecutive years is called______ _______.
Smoke or environmental pollutants cause ______ cells to hypersecrete and increase in number. (chronic Bronchitis
Overdisteded aveoli are responsible for poor O2 and Co2 gas exchange in this disease.
_______ sided heart failure can be a complication of emphysema
S.pneumoniae is most prevalent in the winter and spring and causes pneumonia most often in those younger than _____.
- 60 y/o w/o comorbidities
- 60 and older w/ comorbidities
S/S of this disease come on gradual and include: low grade fever, cough, night sweats, fatigue and weight loss.
Name the two types of emphysema.
Mycoplasma pneumonia is most common in ______ children and ______ adults.
- older children
- younger adults.
What are the Chronic obsrtuctive pulmonary diseases?
- Chronic bronchitis
Name the 3 primary symptoms of COPD.
- Chronic cough
- Sputum production
- Dyspnea with exertion
An airborn infectious disease that is the leading cause of death from infectious disease in the world.
T or F- TB is on the rise due to poverty, malnutrition, substandard housing, increased HIV + population and inadequate healthcare.
Chemical mediators that perpetuate the inflammatory response in asthma are:
The initial TB infection happens ___ to___ weeks after exposure.
________ is the stongest predisposing factor for asthma.
In TB granulomas are surrounded by macrophages that form a protective wall. They are turned into a fibrous tissue mass that becomes ______ forming a _______ mass that becomes calcified forming a scar, then becoming dormant.
(asthma) An increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level is caused by ______ stimulation and causes ________.
reactivation of TB occurs when _______ tubercle ulcerates infecting the surrounding bronchi and spreading the disease.
A chronic inflammatory disease plagued by hyperresponsiveness, mucosal edema, and mucus productionn is called________.
S/S of asthma include:
- chest tightness
The difference between asthma and COPD is that asthma is largely _____.
Common triggers for asthma include:
- Airway irritants
- stress or emotional upset
- sinusitis with postnasal drip
- viral respiratory infections
- gastroesophageal reflux
Three factors that lead to obstruction in asthma is _______of the membranes, _______spasm, and increased ______production.
(asthma) Bronchoconstriction occurs when (cAMP) cyclic adenosine monophosphate is ________ due to _______ stimulation.
T or F
Asthma can be caused by circadian variations that influence airway receptor thresholds.
Bacterial(typical), atypical, anaerobic/cavitary and opportunistic are all classifications of ___________.
What are ther more commonly used classifications of pneumonia?
- (CAP) Community aquired pneumonia
- Hospital aquired pneumonia (nosocomial)(HAP)
- Aspiration pneumonia
- Immunocompromised pneumonia
The acute or chronic closure or collapse of aveoli is called?
Name 4 ways to prevent atelectasis.
- frequent turning
- early mobilization
- expansion of lungs and secretions management
- deep breathing exercises
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