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- the study of the nature and the origin of knowledge, as for example, whether knowledge is innate or empirical (discovered from experience).
- -over centuries philosophy was divided into categories and this was one of them.
- theories of the nature of reality. a religion would consider that its god or gods is ultimate reality. This is a mythological ontology.
- -also a category of philosophy
the study of human beings: their nature, their society, and their values.
means that knowledge and values are relative to individuals and societies. The individual or immediate social group decide what is ultimate reality and what is right or wrong.
Many philosophers came after Socrates. They are grouped as pre socratics. Plato was a pre socratic.
Plato's theory of recollection
- a theory of knowledge (epistemology)
- -this theory means at birth we forget what knowledge we had as eternally existing souls and we spend our life recollecting it.
Plato's theory of forms
- -a theory of knowledge (epistemology) and a theory of the nature of reality (ontology)
- -how do human beings make the world intelligible?
The sophists were relativists. they were opposite of Socrates believing in relativism
Plato describes the psyche or mind as consisting of reason, the rational passions, and the irrational passions.
Plato allows for women in his government.
Socrates fought in this war. Athens was defeated by sparta. When sparta was overthrown and athens regained power democracy was restored. But some seemed critical of the democracy and they were posed as a threat, one being socrates.
Plato's ontological interpretation of reality make a dualistic approach to reality. There is both the world we know through our senses, the material world, and a higher metaphysical "world" or reality. This allows belief in the immortality of the human soul. Plato believes human soul existed before the body and will continue to exist after death. Used in christianity and Islam.
- Irony is a figure of speech in which the intended meaning is opposite of that expressed by the words used. Example:
- -I was almost carried away in spite of myself. Apology
- -I show myself not to be an accomplished speaker at all. Apology
Socrates and Plato
Socrates was Plato's teacher. Plato was the author of many texts
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