CHEMISTRY Periodic Table
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Researched triads that had similar chemical properties
Physical properties showed a trend that varied in an orderly way according to their atomic mass
Russian chemist who organized known elements into a periodic table and recognized that chemical and physical properties varied in an orderly way when elements arranged by increasing atomic mass
What did Mendeleev predict?
- Properties of yet undiscovered elements (based on trends in columns and rows)
- *Predictions were very accurate
How is the modern periodic table arranged?
By atomic number
A vertical column
Family or Group
Divides metals from nonmetals
8 valence electrons - Element is unreactive
Loses electrons when reacting to form a stable octet
Has 1-3 valence electrons
Found left of stair steps
Gains electrons when reacting to form a stable octet
Typically has 5-7 valence electrons
Found right of the stair steps (not including 8A)
Can gain or lose electrons when reacting to form a stable octet
Has 3-5 valence electrons
Found along the stair steps
Do not gain or lose electrons (don't react)
Has 8 (or 2) electrons
Found in rightmost column
Where are the groups and what are their names on the periodic table?
What are family characteristics?
- All have the same number of valence electrons
- Similar chemical properties
- Trends of density, boiling point, melting point
- Trend of increasing or decreasing reactivity
Properties of elements tend to repeat in a pattern when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
Periodicity (Periodic Law)
What are periodic properties?
- Atomic size
- Metallic nature
- Valence electrons
- Chemical reactivity
What are the units for atom size?
- Angstroms = 1x10-10m
- Picometers = 1x10-12m
Energy needed to remove the outermost valence electron from and atom in the gaseous phase
How does ionization energy increase?
- From left to right
- From bottom to top
What are reactivity trends?
- Metals become more reactive down the group
- Nonmetals become less reactive down the group
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