R.Methods
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Discounting Cue:
this is a message that causes you to distrust the accuracy or credibility of a persuasive message

Main Effect:
the effect ofa single independent variable in a factorial experiment


Crossover interaction:
 when plotted, the 2 lines cross over one another
 most convincing forms of interactions

Mixed Designs
has one or more between subjects independent variables and also one or more with in subjects independent variables

AB designs:
where A repressents the baseline condition before therapy and B represents the condition after introduction of the therapy

Changing Criterion Design:
involves changing the behavior necessary to obtain reinforcement

Quasi experiments:
 refer to experimental situations in which the experimenter does notdirectly manipulate variables as in a typical lab experiment
 They arent under direct control of the experimenter

Observation treatment observation cannot be true reversal designs for 2 reasons:
 1. the treatment isnt under the control of the experimenter
 2. most natural treatments are likely to have long term carry over effects

Maturation:
Confound the results of research concerned with natural treatments

Direct Replication
Simply repeating an experiment as closely as possible with as few changes as possible in the method

Systematic Replication:
All sorts of factors are changed that the investigator considers irrelevent to the phenomenon of interest

Conceptual replication:
we attempt to replicate a phenomenon or concept in an entirely different way

Converging operations:
a set of two or more operations that eliminate alternative concepts that might explain a set of experimental results

_________ ________ have more than one independeent variable, and these variables may have more than 2 levels.
multifactor experiments

In a ______ _______, one ormore variables are varied between subjects and one or more variables are varied within subjects.
mixed design

What is the primary reason for using multifactor designs?
look for interactions.

The use of smalln designs usually assumes that valid conclusions can be reached by making:
large numbers of observations on a few subjects in a carefully controlled situation

Quasi experiments have one or more ex post facto components:
 naturally occuring variables
 subject variables
 or both

Converging operations provide:
validity for concepts and hypotheses

Converging operations eliminate:
alternative explanations by 2 or more operations

First set of labs (noise):
1. I.V. 
2. P.V. 
3. D.V 
 1. Amount of noise
 2. Selfconrol questionnaire
 3. hand steadiness, mental arithmetic, tapping, random number generation, scrambled words

Choice reaction time
1. Indepenndent variable
2. Dependept variable
 1. amoint of noise, number of choices and order of doing tasks
 2. Reaction time to number

Touch reaction time
1. I.V
2. D.V
 1. amount of noise and touching ankle or neck
 2. reaction time to touch

Magnitude estimation of weights
1. I.V.
2. D.V.
 1. heaviness of weightand squeeze or relax hand
 2. magnitude estimate of weight

Two point threshold using pointy things
1. I.V
2. D.V.
 1. location on body and look away or look straight ahead
 2. threshold distance in milimeters between 2 points

Number of taste buds
1. P.V.
2.O.V.
 1. Self count
 2. Partner count

Mirror star tracing
1. I.V.
2. D.V.
 1. type of practice: no practice, "square" practice, or 6point star practice
 2. number of errors and time to complete 8point star

Number stroop effect
1. I.V.
2.D.V.
 1. Nature of characters on each of 4 cards and order of testing
 2. time to identify the number of characters on every line per card

Reading and tapping:
1. I.V.'s
2. D.V.
 1. hand used to tap (left/right), not saying or saying alphabet, and order of conditions
 2. number of times pencil transferred

the final question:
What according to the lecturer are the criteria necessary to determine if X is a cause of Y? What are the characteristics of a true experiment. How do each of these characteristics work to meet the criteria necessary to determine in X is a cause of Y? In as many ways as possible distinguish between true experiments and other kinds of studies you learned about

The mean deviation of a test =100 and the standard deviation =10. Student gets a score of 90. What is the Z score?
1

Correlation coefficient that is most significant...

U shaped trend between 2 variables will lead to:
Small pearson product moment correlation coefficient

Value of r^{2} represents:
amount of variance in Y scores that can be accounted for or is associated with variance in X scores

Correlation between X and Y that = .00 indicates:
X doesnt cause Y

The differential loss of subjects from experimental group to experimental group due to factors other than the I.V. is:
 differential attrition
 experimental mortality

According to the text, typically relational research is an example of:
ex post facto

In within subject design, treatments:
arent confounded with subject

Abefore after pretest posttest design is an example of a true experiment. According to the lecturers definition. T/F
False

The degree to which a study measures the effect of the hypothesized cause or IV is called:
internal validity

Degree to which a study measures what it is supposed to measure:
validity

What is the only way that unknown sources of variance (confounding or 3rd variable) can be controlled?
between groups comparison and random assignment