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  1. Discounting Cue:
    this is a message that causes you to distrust the accuracy or credibility of a persuasive message
  2. Main Effect:
    the effect ofa single independent variable in a factorial experiment
  3. Interaction:
    the outcome
  4. Crossover interaction:
    • when plotted, the 2 lines cross over one another
    • most convincing forms of interactions
  5. Mixed Designs
    has one or more between subjects independent variables and also one or more with in subjects independent variables
  6. AB designs:
    where A repressents the baseline condition before therapy and B represents the condition after introduction of the therapy
  7. Changing Criterion Design:
    involves changing the behavior necessary to obtain reinforcement
  8. Quasi experiments:
    • refer to experimental situations in which the experimenter does notdirectly manipulate variables as in a typical lab experiment
    • They arent under direct control of the experimenter
  9. Observation treatment observation cannot be true reversal designs for 2 reasons:
    • 1. the treatment isnt under the control of the experimenter
    • 2. most natural treatments are likely to have long term carry over effects
  10. Maturation:
    Confound the results of research concerned with natural treatments
  11. Direct Replication
    Simply repeating an experiment as closely as possible with as few changes as possible in the method
  12. Systematic Replication:
    All sorts of factors are changed that the investigator considers irrelevent to the phenomenon of interest
  13. Conceptual replication:
    we attempt to replicate a phenomenon or concept in an entirely different way
  14. Converging operations:
    a set of two or more operations that eliminate alternative concepts that might explain a set of experimental results
  15. _________ ________ have more than one independeent variable, and these variables may have more than 2 levels.
    multifactor experiments
  16. In a ______ _______, one ormore variables are varied between subjects and one or more variables are varied within subjects.
    mixed design
  17. What is the primary reason for using multifactor designs?
    look for interactions.
  18. The use of small-n designs usually assumes that valid conclusions can be reached by making:
    large numbers of observations on a few subjects in a carefully controlled situation
  19. Quasi experiments have one or more ex post facto components:
    • naturally occuring variables
    • subject variables
    • or both
  20. Converging operations provide:
    validity for concepts and hypotheses
  21. Converging operations eliminate:
    alternative explanations by 2 or more operations
  22. First set of labs (noise):
    1. I.V. -
    2. P.V. -
    3. D.V -
    • 1. Amount of noise
    • 2. Self-conrol questionnaire
    • 3. hand steadiness, mental arithmetic, tapping, random number generation, scrambled words
  23. Choice reaction time
    1. Indepenndent variable
    2. Dependept variable
    • 1. amoint of noise, number of choices and order of doing tasks
    • 2. Reaction time to number
  24. Touch reaction time
    1. I.V
    2. D.V
    • 1. amount of noise and touching ankle or neck
    • 2. reaction time to touch
  25. Magnitude estimation of weights
    1. I.V.
    2. D.V.
    • 1. heaviness of weightand squeeze or relax hand
    • 2. magnitude estimate of weight
  26. Two point threshold using pointy things
    1. I.V
    2. D.V.
    • 1. location on body and look away or look straight ahead
    • 2. threshold distance in milimeters between 2 points
  27. Number of taste buds
    1. P.V.
    • 1. Self count
    • 2. Partner count
  28. Mirror star tracing
    1. I.V.
    2. D.V.
    • 1. type of practice: no practice, "square" practice, or 6-point star practice
    • 2. number of errors and time to complete 8-point star
  29. Number stroop effect
    1. I.V.
    • 1. Nature of characters on each of 4 cards and order of testing
    • 2. time to identify the number of characters on every line per card
  30. Reading and tapping:
    1. I.V.'s
    2. D.V.
    • 1. hand used to tap (left/right), not saying or saying alphabet, and order of conditions
    • 2. number of times pencil transferred
  31. the final question:
    What according to the lecturer are the criteria necessary to determine if X is a cause of Y? What are the characteristics of a true experiment. How do each of these characteristics work to meet the criteria necessary to determine in X is a cause of Y? In as many ways as possible distinguish between true experiments and other kinds of studies you learned about
  32. The mean deviation of a test =100 and the standard deviation =10. Student gets a score of 90. What is the Z score?
  33. Correlation coefficient that is most significant...
    • r=.40
    • n=20
  34. U shaped trend between 2 variables will lead to:
    Small pearson product moment correlation coefficient
  35. Value of r2 represents:
    amount of variance in Y scores that can be accounted for or is associated with variance in X scores
  36. Correlation between X and Y that = .00 indicates:
    X doesnt cause Y
  37. The differential loss of subjects from experimental group to experimental group due to factors other than the I.V. is:
    • differential attrition
    • experimental mortality
  38. According to the text, typically relational research is an example of:
    ex post facto
  39. In within subject design, treatments:
    arent confounded with subject
  40. Abefore after pretest posttest design is an example of a true experiment. According to the lecturers definition. T/F
  41. The degree to which a study measures the effect of the hypothesized cause or IV is called:
    internal validity
  42. Degree to which a study measures what it is supposed to measure:
  43. What is the only way that unknown sources of variance (confounding or 3rd variable) can be controlled?
    between groups comparison and random assignment
Card Set:
2011-12-06 03:59:31

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