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Genetic adaption of a population of organisms to its environment overtime.
Explain species and populations
- Species - Biological species concept. A population of organisms that is or potentially reproductively isolated from other populations.
- Populations - A group of the same species reproducing in same area
Define and explain adaptions.
- Adaption is the accumulation of inherited characteristics that often enhances an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments.
- -modification of stucture, function, or behavior.
- -Example: forelimbs of tetrapods modified for running, swimming, flying,etc.
- - modifications are passed to offspring - heredity.
Discuss the history of evolution
- 1. Lamarck-produced the first explicit hypothesis of evolution (1809)- not accepted by scientific community
- 2.Darwin-Theory of evolution- widely accepted by scientific community.
- 3.Wallace-concieved the theory of natural selection- survival of the fittest
List the evidences of evolution
- 1. Fossil Record- remnants if organisms
- 2.Biogeography- study of the distribution of living organisms
- 3.Comparative Anatomy-Example: forelimbs in vertebrates
- 4.Comparative Embryology-vestigial structures
- 5.Comparative Biochemistry-organisms have the same biochemical molecules.
Explain natural selection
The differential survival and reproduction of individual living organisms with certain, advantageous characteristics
Explain homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures
- 1. homologous structures- structures that are similiar in different organisms; organisms derived from a common ancestor.
- 3.vestigial structures- features that are fully developed in one group of organisms but are reduced and may have no function in similiar groups.
Compare and Contrast microevolution and Macroevolution
- 1.Microevolution is change in allele fequencies in a population over a short period of time.
- 2.Macroevolution is the results in the formation of new species or other groupings of living organisms.
Define speciation and extinction
- Speciation- origination of new species as a result of the evolutionary process of descent with modification
- Extinction- total disappearance of a species; 98% of all species have gone extinct.
List and discuss the three common types of Speciation
- 1. Allopatric- involving geographic separation of populations.
- 2.Sympatric- genetic differences develop gradually among members of an initially randomly mating population, resulting in reproductive isolation.
- 3.Parapatric- occurs in a group of organisms found between two neighboring populations, which share a border zone
Define reproductive isolation
Constituting a separate evolutionary lineage that is prevented by geographic or biological barriers from interbreeding with other populations.
Prezygotic and Postzygotic
Describe the founder effect.
- A population started by only a few colonizing individuals containing only a small random sample of the alleles present in the ancestral population.
- Examples: such as many bird populations of islands like galapagos finches, hawaiian honeycreepers, and old world flycatchers.
Describe the bottle neck effect
- Occurs when the size of a genetically diverse population drastically falls and a few individuals mate.
- Examples: Cheetahs of south and east africa
The discipline of naming, identifying, classifying, and describing biological diversity.
a feature that is an observable or measurable part of, or attribute of an organism
Define homologous characters
characters of the same origin found in two different taxa
Primitive and derived characters
- 1. Primitive characters- ancestral character, primary or basic, existing in the beginning or the earliest times or ages.
- 2.Derived character- descendant character, not original, originated
- Developed by Carolus Linnaeus
- System of naming organisms using two elements
- scientific name or species
- 2. Specific epithet
Describe the cellular structure of prokaryotes and list the Domains of prokaryotes
- Cell wall
- Domain Archaea- composed of pseudopeptidoglycan
- Domain Bacteria- composed of peptidoglycan
- Plasma membrane - composed of phospholipid bilayer and interspersed proteins.
- Nucleoid - long, circular strand of DNA; bacterial chromosome
- Plasmid DNA- small, circular or linear strand of DNA; found in multiple copies
- Ribosomes and unit membranes
- no nucleus
- no mb organelles
- no cyto skeleton free floating DNA
- single celled
- reproduce different
- small size
Characterize the Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
Define heterotrophs and autotrophs
- Heterotroph- an organism that cannot derive energy from photosynthesis or inorganic chemicals, and so they must feed on other plants and animals.
- Autotrophs- an organism able to build all the complex organic molecules that it requires as its own food source
Asexual and Sexual reproduction in prokaryotes
- Asexual- the process by which an individual inherits all of its chromosomes from a single parent being genetically identical
- Sexual- the process of producing offspring through an alternation of fertilization
Discuss the important uses of bacteria
- nitrogen fixation
- pharmaceuticals- insulin, cortisone, vaccines
- food- vinegar, pickles, cheeses sourcream etc
List harmful bacteria
Bacterial infections and treatment
- antiseptics, disinfectants, antibacterial products
- Infectous agents
- nonliving particles
- can only reproduce with help of host cell
- lack of cellular structure (noncellular)
- Much smaller than bacteria
Compare and Contrast viruses and bacteria
Describe the biochemical composition of viruses
- Capsid - composed of proteins subunits called capsomeres.
- Inner core of nucleic acid
- Double stranded or single stranded DNA or Double or single stranded RNA
- Linear ir circular nucleic acid consists of 4-400 genes
The life cycle and reproduction of viruses
- Rna animal viruses
- Have the enzyme reverse transcriptase that carries out synthesis of DNA from RNA template
- Typically have high mutation rates because replication of the nucleic acid lacks proofreading
- Example: HIV
List five viral infections and control of viral infections
- 1.chicken pox/shingles
- Antiviral pharmaceuticals
- Viroid- highly wound circular RNA that causes diseases in plants
- Prion- causes infectious diseases in animals
- 1. DTP-(Bacterial)diptheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough)
- 2.PCV-(Bacterial)pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(meningitis)
- 3.Polio-(viral)infantile paralysis
- 4.MMR-(Viral)measles, mumps, rubella
- 6.Hep A+B(Viral)liver diseases
- 7.Varicella-(viral)chicken pox/shingles
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