Biology 9 Chapter 14

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gandalfthegrey
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117315
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Biology 9 Chapter 14
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2011-11-18 14:02:27
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Biology
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Environmental Hazards and Human Health
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  1. What are major type of hazrds humans face?
    • Biological
    • Chemical
    • Physical
    • Cultural
    • Lifestyle
  2. What is a nontransmissible disease?
    A disease caused by something other than a living organism and does not spread from person to person, such as cancer and diabetes.
  3. What are transimissible diseases?
    Infectious diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another, such as flu or tuberculosis.
  4. What's an epidemic?
    A large-scale outbreak of an infectious disease in an area or country.
  5. What's a pandemic?
    A global epidemic.
  6. How many people are infected with tuberculosis?
    1 in 3
  7. How many will develop it?
    5-10%
  8. How many active cases were there in 2009?
    9.3 million.
  9. Where is TB mostly concentrated?
    In Asia and Africa.
  10. How many will die?
    1.6 million
  11. What are some inadequacies with TB?
    There is inadequate screening and treatment, which can lead to person-to-person contact.
  12. How does multidrug resistant TB arise?
    Once people believe they are no longer infected and stop using the drugs, the TB will return with a resistance to that antibiotic.
  13. Why are some infectious diseases growing resistant to antibiotics?
    Due to global travel, overuse of pesticides, high bacterial reproductive rate, and overuse of antibiotics.
  14. What are the most deadly viral diseases?
    • 1) Influenza/flu
    • 2) HIV/AIDS
    • 3) Hepatitis B
    • examples: West nile, SARS
  15. What does AIDS stand for?
    Autoimmunodeficiency syndrome
  16. What does HIV stand for?
    Human immunodeficiency virus
  17. How are they spread?
    Unsafe sex, sharing needles, infected blood, and before or during child birth.
  18. How many are affected worldwide?
    33 million people.
  19. What portion of Sub-Saharan Africa is infected?
    2/3.
  20. How many deaths have there been?
    27 million
  21. How many are at risk of getting malaria?
    1 in 5.
  22. How many are killed each day in Africa?
    2,700.
  23. What's one vector of this disease, and how can it be prevented?
    Mosquitoes, which can be deterred with nets or low concentrations of DDT sprayed in homes.
  24. What builds a drug resistance?
    Plasmodium and anopheles.
  25. What is the cycle of malaria infection from a mosquito?
    • The mosquito cuts through the skin and injects an anti-coagulant, along with the plasmodium.
    • The plasmoduium goes through part of a life cycle in the liver, and is in the bloodstream.
    • The body burns in an attempt to kill plasmodium, then cools.
  26. What are the growing concerns with chemical hazards?
    Cancer and birth defects, which disrupt immune, nervous, and endocrine systems.
  27. What are the top 5 toxic chemicals? (2004)
    Arsenic, lead, mercury, vinyl chloride (PVC), polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs)
  28. What is a carcinogen? What are some examples of this?
    Cancer causing chemicals, such as arsenic, benzene, chloroform, formaldehyde, radiation, and tobacco.
  29. What do mutagens do, and what is an example?
    Mutagens change DNA, such as nitrite food preserves.
  30. What do teratogens do, and what are some examples?
    They harm the fetus/embryo. Ethyl alcohol, phtalates, formaldehyde.
  31. What do immune system disruptors do?
    Weaken the immune system.
  32. What do neurotoxins disrupt?
    The nervous system.
  33. What are hormonally active agents (HAA)? Give some examples.
    Hormone mimics that disrupt the endocrine system, suc as atrazine, mercury, BPA, and PCBs.
  34. What has this lead to?
    Males are feminizing.
  35. What is the controversy over BPA?
    Health risks for infants and fetuses.
  36. What percent of Americans have BPA stored in their fat?
    93%.
  37. What kind of effects does mercury cause?
    Nerve and organ damage, and it causes birth defects.
  38. Mercury is found in _____ sources.
    Natural
  39. In what ways can humans be exposed to mercury?
    By burning coal and eating contaminated fish and high fructose corn syrup.
  40. How many U.S. newbors have a lower IQ due to mercury?
    30k-60k.
  41. How can we reduce human exposure to mercury?
    By ending coal burning and waste incineration.
  42. How can we do to reduce the risk of being exposed to mercury?
    We must be informed, think critically, and make careful choices.
  43. What is toxicology?
    The study of poisons.
  44. What is toxicity?
    A measure of the harmfulness of a substance.
  45. Define dose?
    The amount of a harmful chemical that a person has ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.
  46. How do water soluble toxins move around?
    They can move around the environment, and get into water supplies and the aqueous membranes that surround our cells.
  47. How do fat soluble toxins get around?
    They can pentrate the membrane surrounding cells and accumulate there.
  48. How does biological magnification occur?
    Toxins accumulate higher in the food chain due to predators eating larger amounts of prey that have absorbed toxins.
  49. What is an acute effect?
    An immediate or rapid response resulting from exposure to a chemical.
  50. What a chronic effect?
    A permanent or long lasting consequence of exposure to a dose or multiple doses of a harmful substance.
  51. What was found in the blood of newborn children?
    Very low concentrations of toxins.
  52. Why are infants more susceptible to toxic substances?
    • 1)The increased intake of air, water, and food by weight
    • 2) They put contaminated objects in their mouths
    • 3) They have less-developed immune systems.
  53. What is LD50?
    The median lethal dose that can kill 50% of a test populatin in 18 days.
  54. What should be done to protect us?
    We should have pollution protection and the precautionary principle.
  55. What is are the dirty dozen?
    POPs, or Persistant Organic Pollutants.
  56. What did Ray Turner develop?
    He developed a citrus -based compound to clean electronicd instead of a CFC based one.
  57. What is the greatest risk for the number of premature deaths and reducd life span is _____.
    poverty
  58. What is the most preventable major cause of suffering and premature deaths among adults?
    Smoking.

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