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2010-03-23 14:53:03
Music History

Music History Notecards
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  1. The thought that Kings had absolute rule given to them by God
  2. huge proponent of music and the arts
    under him, France finally got their own musical style
    "The Sun King"
    King Louis XIV
  3. On demand performers that followed the King around
    played 5 part music
    added harpsichord, drums, ets.
    vingt-quatre violins du roy (24 Violins of the King)
  4. pedagogical book- how to do fingerings, ornamentations, performance practice, etc.
    became the most important keyboard books
    standardized using "signs"
    The Art of Playing the Harpsichord (L'Art de toucher le clavecin)
  5. wrote "The Art of Playing the Harpsichord"
    Francois Couperin "Le Grand"
  6. instrumental aria
    Air de cour
  7. King's ballet
    it's intent was to raise political support
    ballet de cour
  8. The French version of opera
    tragedie lyrique
  9. stylistic features of tragedie lyrique
    • all about spectacle on stage
    • incorporated ballets
    • chorus
    • plots came from Romances, mythology, chivalry, unrequited love
    • France always used sopranos, rather than castrati
    • most were 5 acts
  10. shifting meters throughout piece
    (late 17th Century)
    recitatif simple
  11. songlike
    uniformly measured
    delicate harmonic motion
    (late 17th Century)
    recitatif mesure
  12. a grouping of pieces
  13. French style of ornamentation
  14. performace practice that involves changing rhythms written in the score as regular to uneven rhythms under certain specific conditions
    notes inegales
  15. plays in 24 violins of the king, becomes composer and director of instrumental music for king
    develops French opera genre
    Giovanni Battista Lully (Lulli- Italian)
  16. popularized the unmeasured prelude
    composed keyboard suites
    Louis Couperin
  17. organist, leader at court of later King Louis XIV
    wrote "The Art of Playing the Harpsichord"
    published 4 books of music
    Francois Couperin "Le Grand"
  18. The time in England's history when Charles II returns to the throne
    brought the arts back to England
  19. brought in the kind of government that they still have today
    William and Mary
  20. in support of royal family (English version)
  21. spoken play
    at dramatic parts, sung and danced
  22. descending tetrachord
    lamenting bass
  23. expansion on the descending tetrachord
    basso ostinato (ground bass)
  24. "Keeper of the Royal Instruments" at Whitehall, organist at Westminster, Composer in Ordinary at Whitehall
    Composed "Dido and Aeneas" for girls' boarding school in Chelsea
    Henry Purcell
  25. born in Germany, went to England for a job, then to Italy to study opera, back to England, composes operas and "Water Music", started an opera enterprise to import Italian singers for opera, develops opera seria, writes oratorios, "Messiah"
    George Frederic Handel
  26. boys who had surgery before puberty to be able to sing high
  27. result of a series of opera reforms in the 18th C.
    Opera seria
  28. stylistic features of Opera Seria
    • always performed in Italian
    • plots- moral or lesson to be learned, moral edification, triumph of truth, characters larger than life
    • heroes always played by castrato
    • castrato became prominent
    • females on stage playing women parts
    • 3 acts
    • like spectacle- machinery, ballets, choruses
    • recitative semplice, accompagnato
    • da capo aria- "exit aria"
    • substitution arias
    • lieto fine - happy ending!
  29. becomes "exit aria" for singers
    da capo aria
  30. Stylistic features of Handel's Oratorios
    • adds chorus, length
    • still no spectacle- no set, costumes, etc.
    • sacred subject
    • narrative plot
    • several acts
    • performed in concert form, but not acted
    • performed in concert halls, chapels- not in oratory
    • recitatives, arias (strophic and da capo), chorus
  31. Two types of recitatives in the early-mid 18th Century
    Semplice, Accompagnato
  32. half-spoken, half-sung melodic patterns
  33. more introspective
    where a particular emotion or mood is concentrated upon
    accompanied by the full orchestra
  34. recitative where the solo voice is accompanied by only the harpsichord
    recitativo semplice
  35. recitative where the full orchestra is used to underscore the solo voice
    reserved for moments of special drama
    recitativo accompagnato