AP Gov Ch. 4 Review

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karmwood96
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AP Gov Ch. 4 Review
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2011-11-17 21:59:16
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Political Culture
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Review for AP Gov's Unit 4 Political Culture Unit
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  1. What are some reasons democracy worked in America?
    • 1) Offered more abundant & fertile soil where roots could grow
    • 2) Vast territory created countless opportunities for people to acquire land and make a living
    • 3) No feudal aristocracy monopolized the land
    • 4) Minimal gov't taxes
    • 5) Few legal restraints
    • 6) Small, independent farms (U.S.) vs landless peasants and indentured servants (Europe)
  2. What is political culture?
    A distinctive and patterned (coherent) way of thinking how political and economic life ought to be carried out
  3. What are 5 important elements in the America view of the political system?
    • -Liberty
    • -Equality
    • -Democracy
    • -Civic Duty
    • -Individual Responsibility
  4. What is public opinion?
    Distribution of individual attitudes about a particular issue, candidate, political institution, etc.
  5. Who developed the "Gallup Polls" in 1932?
    George Gallup
  6. Who was the first "pollster"?
    George Gallup.
  7. What is civic duty?
    A belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs
  8. What is civic competence?
    A belief that one can affect gov't policies.
  9. In what way did religion play a role in colonial America?
    • -Religious ideas fueled the break with England
    • -Religious leaders were central to the struggle over slavery in the 19th century (Temperance Movement)
  10. What does the adversial spirit of the AM Political culture reflect?
    It reflects our distrust of authority and ppl wielding power.
  11. What role does religion play in our American culture?
    • Because religion shaped the upbringing of our country, it developed the attitude of most Americans:
    • •Liberty - preoccupation with our rights
    • •Equality - Equal vote. Equal chance to succeed
    • •Democracy - Gov't accountable for the ppl
    • •Civic Duty - Help in communities
    • •Individual Responsibility - Support yourself unless you're disabled
  12. What are the key points in America's Economic System?
    • Free Enterprise (Laissez-faire) - Individuals and companies can compete for profit. As little gov't as possible
    • Capitalism - System where private citizens own and run the resources. Only use gov't to restrict out of hand competition
    • Free Market - Individuals own factors of production (land, labor, capital). Economic made b/w free businesses and others
    • Equality of Opportunity - Most supported in USA
  13. What are the 10 steps to Presidency?
    • 1. Announcement of Candidacy
    • 2. Caucus and Primary
    • 3. Primary debates
    • 4. Primary Campaigning
    • 5. General Election in Campaign
    • 6. Vice Presiential Choice
    • 7. Convetions
    • 8. General Election Debates
    • 9. Election Day
    • 10. Transition and Inaugration
  14. What is the most dramatic example of the winner-take-all principal?
    The electoral college
  15. What's the difference between the electoral college and popular vote?
    • The electoral vote is a certain number of votes divided up by population at state level.
    • Popular vote is how many votes a president receives across the country so a person can see how many American's actually voted for him.
  16. What are the 4 types of primaries that exist?
    • 1. Open Primaries
    • 2. Closed Primaries
    • 3. Blanket Primaries
    • 4. Runoff Primaries
  17. Why do people mistrust the government?
    • Government officials have gotten in trouble while in presidency.
    • ex. The Watergate Scandal, the Bill Clinton scandal
  18. How are elections financed
    and what campaign finance reform has occurred?
    Presidential and primary elections are both funded by donations, but Presidential elections are qualified to get matching funds from the government if they can raise at least $1000 through donations from 20 different states.
  19. The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 is the campaign finance reform that has occured.
  20. What are cross-cutting cleavages based on and how are they created?
    • They're based on race, ethnicity, religion, and education.
    • They're created by income and occupation.
  21. What is a less clear-cut source of political cleaves?
    Social class
  22. What kind of issues generally lead a person to choose or determine their class?
    Noneconomic issues
  23. What has political posture been shaped by?
    The positions we take on race relations, abortion, school prayers, environmentalism, and terrorism. (Issues that don't clearly affect rich and past differently)
  24. Describe Step 1 of the 10 Steps to Presidency.
    • Step 1. Announcement of Candidadcy
    • You have to get noticed so that you can get mentioned and nominated.
  25. How does religion affect political beliefs?
    Religion is one way a family transmits and forms political beliefs.
  26. · Religious
    • influences on p.o. are most pronounced w/ respect to social issues and less
    • evident on others
  27. What are "Red diaper babies"?
    College radicals were often the sons and daughters of ppl who had themselves been young radicals
  28. What is the best studied case of political opinion formation?
    Party identification
  29. What is a gender gap in politics?
    A difference in political views between men and women
  30. What party trend has been happening since the mid-1960's between males and females?
    Men have increasingly become Republican while women have remain unchanged.
  31. The biggest reason for the gender gap involves attitudes about what?
    • Size of government
    • Gun control
    • Spending programs aimed at the poor
    • Gay rights
  32. What affect has attending college make on the babyboomers and their children?
    Attending college has made them more liberal
  33. How are the political opinions of college students different than what they previously were?
    • Today college students’ opinions are complicated in way that defy simple categorization
    • Ex. Most young ppl are in favor of schools vouchers (conservation side) but also in favor of legally sanction gay marriage (liberal side)
  34. Increased schooling has been associated with political activity. True or False?
    • False.
    • Increased schooling hasnt been associated with schooling; political participation in college students has declined
  35. Many college students believe volunteering is a more significant act than voting. True or false?
    True.
  36. What is the single best predictor of being liberal on some kinds of issues (ex. civil liberties/rights)?
    The level of political participation one has
  37. Liberal, conservative, socialist, or radical ideologies imply what?
    They imply that they have a patterened set of beliefs about how gov't and other important institutions do operate and how they should operate, and, in particular, what kinds of policies gov't ought to pursue
  38. Liberals, conservatives, socialists, and radicals are said to display some degree of what?
    Political ideology
  39. What is political ideology?
    A more or less consistent set of beliegs about what policies gov't ought to pursure
  40. How do you measure the extent to which people have a political ideology?
    • 1) Seeing how frequently people use broad political categories to describe their views or to justify their preferences for various candidates and policies
    • 2) Seeing to what extent the policy preferences of a citizen are consistent over time or are based at any one time on consistent principles
  41. What are 2 procedure to "seeing to what extent the policy preferences of a citizen are consistent over time or are based at any one time on consistent principles" when trying to measure the extent to which people have a political ideology?
    • Math procedure: Measure how accurately one can predict a person's view on a subject at one time based on their on that subject at an earlier time
    • OR
    • Measure how accurately one can predict a person's view on an issue based on their view on a different issue
  42. From largest to smallest, rank three ideological views
    • Moderates
    • Conservatives
    • Liberals
  43. No more than 1/2 of American's can give convincing defintions of the political terms like liberal, conservative, etc. True or false?
    True
  44. Do American's think of politics in an ideological manner?
    Nope.
  45. What do critics of "Americans are 'nonideological'" say?
    They aregue that people can have strong-felt political predispositions even though they aren't able to use terms like liberal correctly
  46. How does American society violate a "political rule of thumb?"
    Since people have "inconsistent" opinions, this violate the "rule of thumb" that expect people who are liberal on one view to be liberal on all views and vice versa.
  47. What is the original definition of a liberal?
    One who favors personal and economic libert (freedom from the controls of power and state)
  48. What is the original defintion of a conservative?
    One who opposed to excesses of the French Revolution and its emphasis on personal freedom and favored restoration of the power of the state, church, and the artisocracy
  49. When did the original meaning of the terms liberal and conservative begin to change?
    Around Roosevelt's term and the New Deal
  50. How did Roosevelt use the term liberal to refer to his political program (the New Deal)?
    He referred to it as one that called from an active national government and that would intervene in the economy, creating social welfare programs, and help certain groups acquire greater bargaining power
  51. Who was the first major politician to describe himself as a conservative?
    Barry Goldwater, 1964
  52. Over time, what was the new definition of a conservative?
    A person who favored a free marker instead of a regulated one, states' rights over national supremacy, and greater reliance on individual choice in economic affairs
  53. Broad categories of opinions to which different ppl subscribe are found by analyzing the
    answers ppl give to dozens of questions about political issues. What are those 3 categories?
    • 1st category: Questions about government policy with regard to the economy
    • 2nd category: Questions about civil rights and race relations
    • 3rd category: Questions about public and political conduct
  54. How many categories of opinion are there to describe the three categories (political conduct, economy, and civil rights)
    Nine
  55. What are the 4 categories of opinions mentioned in the text book?
    • Pure liberaals
    • Pure conservatives
    • Libertarians
    • Populists
  56. Describe someone who is a pure liberal.
    • Both economy policy and personal conduct: Liberal
    • They want government to reduce economic inequality, regulate business, tax the rich, cure the economic causes of crime, allow abortions, protect the rights of the accused, and guarantee the broadest possible freedoms of speech and press
    • Traits: Young, college-educated, nonreligious
  57. Describe someone who is a pure conservative.
    • Both economic policy and personal conduct: Conservative
    • They want to cut back on the welfare state, allow the market to allocate foods and services, keep taxes low, lock up criminals, and check forms of conduct they believe to be antisocial
    • Traits: Older, higher incomes, white, live in the Midwest
  58. Describe someone who is a libertarian
    • Economic issues: conservative
    • Social issues: Liberal
    • They usually want a small, weak government that has little control over either the economy or the personal lives of citizens
    • Traits: young, college-educated, white, higher incomes, nonreligious, live in the west
  59. Describe someone who is a populist.
    • Economy: Liberal
    • Social: Conservative
    • They want a government that will reduce economic inequality and control business, but want it regulate personal conduct, lock up criminals, and permit school prayer
    • Traits: Older, poorly educate, low-income, religious, female, live in the South or Midwest
  60. Who makes up the one group that can be classified as liberals and conservatives in a pure sense?
    People in the political elite
  61. State 3 reaons why every society has a political elite
    • In every society...
    • 1) Government officials will have more power than oridnary people
    • 2) Some will make more money than others
    • 3) Some will be more popular than others
  62. Greater ideological consistency of political elites can be seen in what branch of American government?
    Congress
  63. Republican and Democratic leaders in Congress are more _____ because voters are more _____.
    • Polarized.
    • Republican and Democratic leaders in Congress are more polarized because voters are more polarized.
  64. Power of party leaders and elected officials has greatly increased or diminished?
    Diminished. Now, most delgates are selected by primary elections
  65. How come delegates may be unrepresenative of the "rank and file" party?
    They care chosen in caucuses and primary elections who participants are unpresentative
  66. What is a caucus?
    A meeting of party members to select delegates backing one or another primarycandidate
  67. Changing incentives for participation in party work + the effects of the primary system = the contribution to the development of a nat’l presidential nomination system
    different from that which once existed
    • Advantage: increases the opportunity for those w/ strong policy preferences to play a role in the party and ergo reduces the chance that they will bolt the party and form a factional minor party
    • Disadvantage: Increases the chances that one or both parties nominate presidential candidates who are not appealing to the avg voter or even to a party’s rank and file
  68. What is an incumbent?
    The person already holding an elective office
  69. What are coattails?
    The alleged tendency of candidates to win more votes in an election b/c of the presence at the top of the ticket of a better-known candidate, such as the president
  70. What is malappaortionment?
    Drawing the boundaries of legislative district so that they are unequal in population
  71. What is gerrymandering?
    Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarres or unusual shapes to shapes to favor one party
  72. Name 4 problems to solve in deciding who gets represented in the House
    • 1. Establishing the total size of the House
    • 2. Allocating seats in the House among the states
    • 3. Determining the size of congressional districts w/I states
    • 4. Determining the shape of those districts
  73. How does a candidate win a party's nomination?
    By gathering enough voter signatures to get on the ballot in a primary election
  74. What is sophomore surge?
    An increase in the votes congressional candidates usually get when they first run fore reelection
  75. What's the reason for sophomore surge?
    Members of Congress have figured out how to use their offices to run for personal rather than party campaigns
  76. Define the tendencies of a "delegate."
    They tend to value freedom over other consideration and seek out committee assignments and projects that will produce benefits for their districts
  77. Define the tendencies of "trustees."
    They seek out committee assignments that give them a chance to address large question that may have no implications at all for their districts
  78. Where do presidential candidates get their money from?
    They get part of it from private donors and part of it from the federal government (matching funds)
  79. Do congressional candidates get all of their money from private sources?
    Yes
  80. What does a presidential candidate have to do to qualify for matching funds?
    They have to raise money from individual donors who contribute no more than $250 (from 20 states)
  81. What is the most a PAC can give a candidate in any election?
    $5k
  82. What were the 2 political results of the Watergate scandal?
    • President Nixon was forced to resign
    • A new campaign finance law was passed
  83. What were some aspects of the 1973 campaign finance law?
    • Individuals couldn't contribute more than $1,000 to a candidate during any single elction
    • Created a substitute for PACs; A PAC must have at least 50 voluntarily enrolled members, give to at least 5 fed candidates, and mustn't give mor ethan $5,000 to any candidate in any election or more than $15k per year
    • Helped increased the amount of money spent on elections and changed the way money was spend
  84. What 2 problems did the '73 campaign finance law produce?
    • Independent expenditures
    • Soft money
  85. What are independent expenditures?
    Spending by a political political action committees, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them
  86. What is soft money?
    • Funds obtained by political parties that are
    • spent on party activities, ex. Get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a
    • specific candidate
  87. What is the BiPartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002
    A strong movement developed in Congress to reform the reforms of the 70’s
  88. What were the 3 important changes made by the McCain-Feingold Act?
    • 1. Banned“soft money” contributions to nat’l political parties from corporations and unions. Any money they get must be “hard money”—individual donations or PAC contributions as limited by fed law
    • 2. Limit on individual contributions was raised from $1k per candidate per election to $2k
    • 3. “Independent expenditures” by corporations, labor unions, trade associations, and (under certain circumstances) nonprofit organizations are sharply restricted
  89. What are 527 organizations?
    Organizations that, under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Cose, raise and spend money to advance political issues
  90. During peacetime, presidential elections are usually decided by what 3 things?
    • 1. Political party affiliation
    • 2. The state of the economy
    • 3. The character of the candidates

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