research 3

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research 3
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2011-11-17 18:08:58
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  1. A statistical value that indicates differences in results found in the sample when compared to the population from which the sample was drawn
    Sampling error
  2. A consequence of selecting subjects whose scores are different, or vary in some specific way from the population at large
    sampling bias
  3. A condition that occurs when subjects are selected for a study or assigned in groups in a way that is not impartial. This may pose a threat to the validity of the study.
    Selection bias
  4. the potential participants who meet the definition of the population and are accessible to the researcher
    Sampling frame
  5. separate sample scores or groups of scores (example: differences between men and women)
    independent sample
  6. two sets of scores on the same subject or pairs (example: pre-post test measures)
    dependent sample
  7. the measurement of the magnitude of the impact of an intervention
    Effect size
  8. an analysis that indicates how large a sample is needed to adequately detect a difference in the outcome variable
    power
  9. a listing of every member of the target ppopulation, using the sample criteria
    sampling frame
  10. the aggregate of cases about which the researcher would like to make generalizations
    target population
  11. a nonprobability method of selecting a sample that includes subjects who are available conveniently to the researcher
    convenience sampling
  12. the researcher randomly selects entire groups and then randomly selects subjects from only those groups
    Cluster sampling
  13. each subject is asked to recruit other subjects
    Snowball sampling (referral sampling)
  14. guidelines for choosing subjects with a predetermined set of characteristics that include major factors important to the research question
    inclusion criteria
  15. a sampling process used in quantitative research in which every member of the available population has an equal probability of being selected for the sample
    probability sampling
  16. useful when the researcher is unsure how many individuals will eventually be in the population or if there is an indefinitie sampling grame.
    Systematic random sampling
  17. population divided into two or more subgroups, then representative picks sample from each group
    Stratified random sampling
  18. data that can be named and placed into categories but cannot be ranked or measured on a scale
    nominal
  19. categorical data that can be put in rank order. The scales contain intervals between entries that vary, limiting statistical analyses and comparisons across the scales or between subjects (pain scale)
    ordinal
  20. data measured on a scale that has consistent intervals between measurement units and allows for broad selection of mathematical operations and analytic options
    Interval
  21. data measured on interval scales that have a true zero
    ratio
  22. a segment of population established by one or more specifications
    strata
  23. used in studies in which several groups, such as experimental and control or comparison groups, will be involved
    Random assignment
  24. the point at which no new information is being generated and the sample size is determined to be adequate
    saturation
  25. a ____ error occurs when thre is a difference between groups but the researcher does not detect it (the intervention works, but the researcher does not conclude that is does)
    type II
  26. A researcher is very careful to recruit subjects for the sample so that it will represent the population well. This is done to:
    minimize sampling error
  27. When subjects elect not to participate or drop out of a study, it can lead to:
    sampling bias
  28. Which sampling strategy is most often used in qualitative research?
    purposive sampling
  29. What is the main limitation of using a convenience sample?
    selection bias
  30. In qualitative studies, sample size is determined by:
    saturation
  31. How can you decrease the risk of a Type II error?
    increase the sample size
  32. When a study lacks power, what is most likely to occur?
    Type II error
  33. the extent to which an instrument is consistent across raters, as measured with a percentage agreement or a kappa statistic
    Interrater reliability (scorer agreement)
  34. _____ do not affect the average scores in a data set but do affect the variation that exists around the average.
    Random error
  35. a measure of discriminate validity in the biomedical sciences that indicates an instrument has the capacity to detect disease if it is present
    sensitivity
  36. a measure of discriminate validity in the biomedical sciences that indicates an instrument has the capacity to differentiate when the disease is not present
    specificity
  37. _______ tells us that the differences or relationships are NOT due to chance
    Statistical significance
  38. asks respondents to express agreement or disagreement on a 5 or 7 point scale (stongly disagree, disagree, agree.. etc.)
    Likert scale
  39. a scale with a set of items on a continuum or statements ranging from one extreme to another. Responses are progressive and cumulative (yes or no questions)
    guttman scale
  40. _______ provide choices that are mutually exclusive and encompass the total range of answers
    Forced- choice questions
  41. rating type scale in which respondents mark a location on the scale corresponding to their perception of a phenomenon on a continuum
    visual analog scale
  42. gender is an example of what type of data?
    nominal data
  43. A score of 20 on the Beck's Depression Inventory is an example of what type of data?
    ordinal data
  44. A subject answers a questionnaire based on a desire to be socially desirable. This is an example of what type of error?
    systematic error
  45. a type of frequency distribution in which variables with different values are plotted as a graph on x-axes and y-axes, and the shape can be visualized
    Histogram
  46. a graphic presentation that indicates the nature of the relationship between two variables
    Scatter plot
  47. ______: bell shaped graph, mean is at 0 and the standard deviation is 1
    Normal distribution
  48. Measure between extremes, loks at difference between lowest and highest value
    Range
  49. Represents the variability of data, the average distance of values from the mean
    variance
  50. the most easily interpreted measure of variability of scores around the mean; represents the average amount of variation of data points about the mean
    Standard deviation
  51. _____: statistical tests that are appropriate for data that are normally distributed (fall in a bell curve)
    parametric tests
  52. a measure that depicts the strength and nature of the relationship between the two variables
    correlational analysis
  53. statistical tests to determine if results found in a sample are representative of a population
    inferential analysis
  54. ______ allows the researcher to recommend that an intervention be used and to do so with an identified level of confidence. Fundamentally it is an analysis of differences that occur between samples and populations, between groups, or over time b/c something changed.
    Inferential analysis
  55. a range of values that includes, with a specified level of confidence, the actual population parameter
    confidence interval
  56. a statistic derived from a sample that is used to represent a population parameter
    point estimate
  57. analysis of a single variable in descriptive statistics or a single dependent variable in inferential analysis
    univariate analysis
  58. analysis of two variables at a time, as in correlation studies
    bivariate analysis
  59. analysis of the effects of an independent variable on two or more dependent variables simultaneously
    multivariate analysis
  60. Determining if BP is different in the morning or evening, and is associated with sodium intake, weight, and stress level, is an example of a ________ analysis.
    multivariate
  61. the risk of erroneous conclusions that the researcher is willing to accept; the standard for statistical significance
    alpha
  62. Differences between groups exceed standard error; the probability that differences are due to chance is less than 5 percent
    statistically significant
  63. When a result has an identified level of error that is lower than that which was set before the experiment began (alpha), then the results are called _____, and it is assumed the intervention had an effect
    Statistically significant
  64. concluding that a null hypothesis is false when in fact it is true; claiming a treatment has an effect when it does not
    type 1 error
  65. concluding that a null hypothesis is true when in fact it is false; claiming a treatment does not have an effect when it does
    type 2 error
  66. Setting alpha appropriately would most likely avoid which type of error?
    Type 1 error
  67. Using and adequate sample size would avoid which type of error?
    Type 2 errors
  68. what is the only measure of central tendency that can be applied to nominal data?
    mode
  69. The largest proportion of values of a variable are in the middle of the distribution
    normal distribution
  70. The __________ is a measure of the variability of scores around the mean
    standard deviation
  71. If a distribution of scores has a small variance, how will the histogram of the scores appear?
    The largest proportion of scores will be clustered in the center around the mean
  72. A researcher want to determine the effect of exercise on mood and blood pressure. What type of analysis will be conducted?
    multivariate analysis
  73. Determining if blood pressure is associated with sodium intake is what type of analysis?
    bivariate analysis
  74. __________ are based on the comparison of observed differences between groups in the study to the standard error.
    inferential statistics
  75. What does the p value represent when conducting inferential analyses?
    the probability that the results are due to the standard error
  76. A researcher reports that the findings from the study are statistically significant. What does this mean?
    Differences in the scores between groups exceed the standard error.
  77. a highly structured and controlled search of the available literature that minimizes the potential for bias and produces a practice recommendation as an outcome
    systematic review
  78. a methodology that synthesizes quantitative, theoretical, and qualitative research to provide a comprehensive understanding of the human condition
    integrative review
  79. a statistical method of aggregating the results of quantitative studies so an overall effect size can be evaluated
    meta-analysis
  80. the development of overarching themes about the meaning of human events based on synthesis of multiple qualitative studies
    qualitative meta-synthesis
  81. a process of statistically pooling the results from previous studies into a single quantitative analysis that provides a high level of evidence for an interventions efficacy
    meta-analysis
  82. a process and product of systematically reviewing and formally integrating the findings from qualitative studies
    qualitative meta-synthesis
  83. a statistical method of determining an overall effect size for a given intervention from a group of studies.
    meta-analysis
  84. What is a benefit from conducting a meta-synthesis?
    It develops new knowledge from existing qualitative findings.

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