bio psyc exam 4

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bio psyc exam 4
2011-12-11 18:29:05
bio psyc exam

bio psyc exam 4
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  1. neuromuscular junction –
    • synapse between a motor neuron axon and a muscle fiber.
    • in skeletal muscles all axons release acetylcholine to contract a muscle.
    • receptors of acetylcholine are nicotinic.
  2. antagonistic muscles
    • opposing sets of muscles.
    • includes a flexor and extensor
  3. Myasthenia gravis
    • autoimmune disease where the immune system forms antibodies that attack the acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.
    • causes weakness and rapid fatigue of skeletal muscles.
  4. fast-twitch fibers
    fast contraction and rapid fatigue.
  5. slow twitch fibers
    less vigorous contractions and no fatigue.
  6. aerobic
    use oxygen during their movements.
  7. anaerobic
    using reactions that don’t require oxygen at the time although they need O2 for recovery.
  8. Social timer:
    if a group in isolation, individuals develop a group rhythm, even if individuals had other rhythms before.
  9. Blind individuals:
    rely more strongly on these zeitgebers; if not, their effective circadian rhythms are longer than 24 hours
  10. proprioceptor
    receptor that detects position or movement of a part of the body.
  11. stretch reflex
    • caused by a stretch; does not produce one
    • when a muscle is stretched the spinal cord sends a reflexive signal to contract it (to keep it from overstretching).
  12. muscle spindle
    receptor parallel to the muscle that responds to a stretch.
  13. golgi tendon organs
    respond to increases in muscle tension.
  14. reflexes
    • consistent automatic responses to stimuli
    • insensitive to reinforcements, punishments, and motivations.
    • restriction of pupil in bright light.
  15. ballistic movement
    • executed as a whole: once initiated it cant be stopped
    • reflexes are ballistic
  16. central pattern generators
    • neuroal mechanisms in the spinal cord that generate rhythmic patterns of motor output
    • ex: wing flapping, wet dog shake
  17. motor program
    • fixed sequence of movements.
    • ex: animal grooming, typing, piano playing.
    • thinking or talking about it interferes with the action.
  18. primary motor cortex
    • elicits movements.
    • does not send messages directly to muscles; goes to the brainstem and spinal cord first which generate the impulses that go to muscles.
  19. posterior parietal cortex
    keeps track of position of the body relative to the world.
  20. prefrontal cortex
    • responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement and plans movements
    • damage: many movements would seem illogical or disorganized
    • ex: showering with clothes on.
  21. premotor cortex
    active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself.
  22. supplementary motor cortex
    • planning and organizing a rapid sequence of movements in a particular order
    • inhibition of a step in a habitual action when you need to do something else
    • activated a second or two prior to a movement.
  23. mirror neurons
    • active both during preparation for a movement and while watching someone else perform the same or a similar movement;
    • cells in the insula become active when you see something disgusting.
  24. readiness potential
    • begins at least 500 ms before the person’s conscious decision.
    • in a study, people report that their decision to move occurred about 200 ms before the movement.
  25. corticospinal tracts
    paths from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord.
  26. lateral corticospinal tract
    set of axons from the primary motor cortex, surrounding areas, and the red nucleus.
  27. red nucleus
    part of the midbrain responsible for controlling arm muscles.
  28. medial corticospinal tract
    axons frm many parts of the cerebral cortex not just primary cortex and surrounding areas.
  29. vestibular nucleus
    receives input fro vestibular system.
  30. cerebellum cells
    • purkinje cells
    • parallel fibers
    • nuclei of the cerebellum
  31. purkinje cells
    flat 2d cells in sequential plantes parallel to each other.
  32. parallel fibers
    axons parallel to each other and perpendicular to the planes of the purkinje cells.
  33. nuclei of the cerebellum
    clusters of cell bodies in cerebellum
  34. basal ganglia
    • group of large subcortical structures in the forebrain.
    • caudate nucleus
    • putamen
    • globus pallidus- damage = jerky movements
    • input from cortex goes to caudate nucleus and putamen, output from caudate nucleus and putamen goes to globus pallidus
    • from globus pallidas to thalamus and midbrain then to motor and prefrontal cortex.
    • important in starting movements but not in movements guided.
  35. parkinson’s disease
    • rigidity, muscle tremors, slow movements, difficulty initiating physical and mental activity.
    • still intellectually intact just have trouble with movements.
    • easier when movements are guided, stairs, a marathon.
    • more common among farmers and those who’ve had exposure to herbicides and pesticides.
    • people who smoke or drink coffee have less of a chance to develop it.
  36. L-dopa
    • precursor to dopamine
    • does cross the BBB
    • taken as a pill neurons convert it to dopamine, help initially with parkinson’s; does not help with advanced disease.
  37. endogenous circannual rhythm
    body clock that prepares for seasonal changes.
  38. endogenous circadian rhythm
    body clock that prepares for daily changes.
  39. free running rhythm
    rhythm that occurs when no stimuli reset or alter it.
  40. zeitgeber
    • stimulus that resets the circadian rhythm.
    • light is the dominant one for land animals.
    • tides are important for marine animals
    • exercise, noise, meals, temperature of envir.
  41. jet lag
    disruption of circadian rhythms due to crossing time zones.
  42. suprachiasmatic nucleus or SCN
    • biological clock depends on it
    • part of the hypothalamus
  43. melatonin
    • naturally produced hormone
    • influences both circadian and circannual rhythms.
    • pineal gland secretes it mostly at night.
    • able to reset biological clock.
  44. pineal gland
    endocrine gland located posterior to the thalamus.
  45. coma
    • extended period of unconsciousness caused by head trauma, stroke, or disease.
    • person cannot be woken up.
    • little but steady brain activity.
    • no response to stimuli
    • typical coma lasts weeks resulting in either death or healing.
  46. vegetative state
    • person alternates between periods of sleep and moderate arousal
    • breathing is more regular, painful stimulus produces autonomic responses of increased heart rate, breathing and sweating.
    • can last for months or years.
  47. brain death
    • no sign of brain activity and no response to any stimulation.
    • brain death after 24 hours of no activity.
  48. minimally conscious state
    • occasional brief periods of purposeful actions and a limited amount of speech comprehension.
    • can last for months or years.
  49. polysomnograph
    combination of EEG and eye movement records.
  50. alpha waves
    characteristic of relaxation, not all wakefulness
  51. sleep spindle
    • waves during a burst that lasts at least half a second.
    • oscillating interactions b/t cells in the thalamus and cortex.
  52. k complex
    sharp high amplitude wave most common in stage 2.
  53. slow wave sleep
    stages 3 and 4.
  54. paradoxical sleep
    • REM sleep
    • deep in some ways and light in others.
    • associated with rapid eye movement.
    • heart rate, BP, breathing rate more variable.
  55. pontomesencephelon
    • neurons receive input from many sensory systems and generate spontaneous activity of their own.
    • maintains arousal during wakefulness and increases it in response to new or challenging tasks.
    • stimulation wakes someone who is sleeping.
  56. locus coeruleus
    • silent during sleep.
    • anything that stimulates it strengthens the storage of recent memories.
  57. orexin or hypocretin
    • neurotransmitter released by hypothalamus
    • not necessary for waking up but is for staying awake.
    • drops when you sleep.
  58. PGO waves
    distinctive pattern of high amplitude electrical potentials.
  59. pons
    • activity triggers onset of REM sleep.
    • damage = muscles are not relaxed during REM sleep.
  60. onset insomnia
    trouble falling asleep.
  61. maintenance insomnia
    waking up and cant go back to sleep for a long time.
  62. terminal insomnia
    waking up earlier than needed.
  63. sleep apnea
    impaired ability to breathe while sleeping
  64. cataplexy
    • attack of muscle weakness while person remains awake.
    • e.g. collapsing
  65. narcolepsy
    • sleep attacks
    • cataplexy
    • sleep paralysis
    • hypnagogic hallucinations – sensation of falling in bed.
    • lack the hypothalamic cells that produce and release orexin.
  66. REM behavior disorder
    moving around vigorously during REM periods, acting out dreams possibly.
  67. night terrors
    experiences of intense anxiety from which a person awakens screaming in terror.
  68. lactase
    enzyme necessary to digest lactose.
  69. lactose
    sugar in milk.
  70. conditioned taste aversion
    occurs reliably after just a single pairing of food with illness.
  71. sham feeding
    food an animal swallows leaks out through a tube.
  72. vagus nerve
    cranial nerve X conveys info about stomach stretching.
  73. splanchnic nerves
    convey info about nutrient contents of the stomach.
  74. cholescystokinin
    • CCK limits meal size in two ways
    • closes the sphincter muscle between the stomach and the duodenum, and stimulates the vagus nerve to tell the hypothalamus to release a neurotransmitter rthats a shorter version of CCK.
  75. insulin
    • enables glucose to enter the cells except for brain cells
    • when insulin is high cells receive glucose easily
    • when insulin in low, cells need more to receive glucose.
  76. glucagon
    stimulates the liver to convet some of its stored glycogen to glucose to replenish low supplies in the blood.
  77. leptin
    • limited to vertebrates
    • the more fat cells the more leptin.
    • signals the brain about the body’s fat reserves.
  78. arcuate nucleus
    • in hypothalamus
    • has a set of neurons sensitive to hunger signals
    • has a set of neurons sensitive to satiety signals.
  79. melanocortin
    • receptors in the paraventricular nucleus important for limiting food intake
    • deficiencies lead to overeating.
  80. ghrelin
    • hunger hormone
    • decreases appetite
    • enhances learning
  81. orexin
    • increases persistence in seeking food after prolonged food deprivation.
    • responds to incentive or rewrd properties of a meal.
  82. lateral hypothalamus
    • controls insulin secretion and alters taste responsiveness.
    • damage = trouble digesting food
  83. ventromedial hypothalamus
    damage =leads to overeating and weight gain
  84. Dorsolateral tract
    • Controls movement in hands, fingers, and toes.
    • Damage means loss of fine motor movements.
  85. activation synthesis hypothesis
    a dream represents te brains effort to make sense of sparse and distorted info.
  86. Ventromedial tract
    • Axons do not cross to contralateral side, controls bilateral movement of the neck, shoulder, and truck (movements with these are done with both sides always).
    • Damage impairs walking, turning, bending, standing up and sitting down.
  87. Pontomesencephalon (part of reticular formation)
    Area maintains arousal in wide regions of forebrain (hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain)
  88. Dorsal raphe
    • Structure in the pons
    • Activity interrupts REM sleep
  89. Amylases (from salivary glands)
    for carbs
  90. Proteases
    (from stomach, small intestine) for proteins (e.g. pepsin)
  91. Lipases
    (from small intestine) for fat
  92. Arcuate nucleus:
    master area that picks up on both hunger and satiety signals from the body. (e.g. CCK).
  93. Lateral hypothalamus:
    activity increases various behaviors related to feeding.
  94. Paraventricular hypothalamus:
    inhibits the lateral hypothalamus.
  95. Ventromedial hypothalamus:
    initiates and regulates satiety.