Botany Exam 3 Review

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craigalangray
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117411
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Botany Exam 3 Review
Updated:
2011-11-16 22:41:52
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Botany exam review
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Review for botany exam 3
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  1. Basidium
    • Sexual fruiting organ of Basidiomycetes
    • May or may not be in a basidiocarp
  2. Basidiospore
    • Sexual spore of Basidiomycetes
    • 1N, typically produce 4 per basidium
  3. Teliospore
    • In rust & smut fungi
    • where karyogamy occurs N+N to 2N
  4. Probasidium
    • Germinates from an overwintered teliospore
    • Meiosis occurs 2N to 1N and 4 basidiospores (1N) are formed on the basidium
  5. Rust Fungi
    • no basidiocarp, yes basidium
    • multiple spore stages
    • may require two hosts to complete life cycle
  6. Macrocyclic
    3 to 5 spore stages
  7. Microcyclic
    less than 3 spore stages
  8. Autoecious
    one host
  9. Heteroecious
    two host
  10. Alternate Host
    infected by basidiospores
  11. Primary Host
    • infected by aeciospores from alternate host
    • host on which teliospores form
  12. Rust Fungi Plasmogamy occurs...
    between pycniospores and receptive hyphae in the pycnidium
  13. Rust Fungi Karyogamy occurs...
    in the developing teliospore
  14. Rust Fungi Meiosis occurs...
    in the germinating teliospore/probasidium
  15. Black Stem Rust of Wheat
    • Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici
    • Macrocyclic and heteroecious
  16. Black Stem Rust of wheat spore stages
    • IV Basidiospore 1N
    • 0 Pycniospore 1N
    • I Aeciospore N+N
    • II Urediospore N+N
    • III Teliospore 2N
  17. Black Stem Rust of Wheat Alternate Host
    • Barberry
    • Infected by basidiospores 1n
    • Forms Pycnidium, Pycnidiospores 1n and recep hyphea (Plasmogamy)
    • Forms aecium and aeciospores N+N
  18. Black Stem Rust of Wheat Primary Host
    • Wheat
    • Infected by aeciospores
    • Forms uredinia and urediniospores N+N
    • Forms telia and teliospores 2n Karyogamy
  19. Soybean Rust
    • Phakopsora pachyrhizi
    • Autoecious - microcyclic
  20. Soybean Rust spore stages
    Urediniospores & Teliospores
  21. Rust Diseases Management
    • Resistant varieties when available
    • Fungicides when affordable
    • Eradication of Host
  22. Smuts
    • Usually produce only Teliospores and Basidiospores
    • No Basidiocarp
    • Often attack the ovaries of grains producing large amounts of inoculum
  23. Stinking Smut of Wheat
    • Tilletia tritici
    • M.M Tillett 1755
  24. Corn Smut
    • Ustilago maydis
    • 2n Teliospores
    • Basidium
    • 1n Basidiospore
    • Teliospore
  25. Armillaria/Shoestring Root Rot
    Armillaria mellea
  26. Tobacco Mosaic Virus Firsts
    • Shown infectious
    • Shown to reproduce in vivo
    • Virus crystalized from infected plant
    • Seen
    • Characterized
  27. 6 Intrinsic Properties of Viruses
    • Infectious - Mayer
    • Small - Ivanowski
    • Reproduce in plants - Beijernick
    • Have Protein - Stanley
    • Have nucleic acid RNA - Bawden
    • RNA is infectious part - Frankel-Conrat
  28. Virus Morphologies (4)
    • Rigid Rods
    • Flexuous Rods
    • Icosahedral
    • Bacilliform
  29. Aphids
    • Homoptera, Aphididae
    • Potyviruses & BYDV
  30. Leafhoppers
    Homoptera, Cicadellidae
  31. Whiteflies
    • Homoptera, Aleyrodidae
    • Gemini Virus
  32. Thrips
    • Order Thysanoptera
    • TSWV
  33. 3 ways insects transmit viruses
    • Nonpersistent
    • Persistent
    • Persistent, Circulative
  34. Tobacco Mosaic Virus
    • Rigid Rod
    • Transmitted machanically
    • Wide Host Range
  35. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus
    Infects...
    Vectored...
    Morph...
    • Cereal Grasses
    • Aphids
    • Icosahedral, ssRNA, Persistant & Circulative
  36. Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus
    Infects...
    Vectored...
    Morph...
    • 650 diff plants
    • Thrips
    • Icosahedral
  37. TSWV symptoms
    Spotting, wilting, necrosis
  38. Phlyum for seg round worms
    Annelida
  39. Phylum & Host for flat worms
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Human & Animals
  40. Phylum & Host for non-segmented round worms
    • Nematoda
    • Plants
  41. PPN
    affect
    may be
    may be
    have
    • mostly roots but also leaves and stems
    • ectoparasitic or endoparasitic
    • sedentary or migratory
    • stylet
  42. PPN Life cycle stages
    Egg, Juv (J1 to J4), and adult
  43. 3 most economically important PPN
    • Root Knot
    • Soybean Cyst
    • Lesion
  44. Root Knot Nematode
    • Meloidogyne incognita, M. hapla
    • Sedentary, endoparasitic
    • Female induces plant to make 'giant cells' on which she feeds
    • Body swells into a large egg mass
  45. Soybean Cyst Nematode
    • Heterodera glycines
    • Sedentary, endoparasitic
    • Female induces feeding site "syncytium"
    • Female body swells with eggs, becomes hard cyst
    • Cyst falls to ground & overseasons
    • Releases eggs in spring
  46. Lesion Nematode - Potato Early Dying Disease
    • Pratylenchus
    • 400+ dicots & monocots
    • migratory, endoparasitic
    • symptoms are lesions, not galls
  47. Nematode Management
    • Resistant Varieties
    • Crop Rotation w non host
    • Field Flooding
    • Soil Fumigation
    • Bio Control

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