Chapter 17-Scientific Revolution

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Chapter 17-Scientific Revolution
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McKay Chapter 17
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  1. Aristotelian Universe
    4th Century- early 1500's

    who: based on greek philosopher's concepts of astronomy and physics

    • whats:
    • dictated earth=fixed, center of universe(with spheres of water, air, and fire)
    • place the moon, sun, and five known planets in spheres around earth
    • M.A. people added two rings to explain stars movement( heaven=last ring)
    • Aristotle said light elements= air/fire; heavy=water/earth (~gravity)

    • whys:
    • beginning of understanding gravity- but ?s how elements mix
    • ?s "backward motion of planets" (orbits)
    • agreed with Christianity
  2. Nicolaus Copernicus
    1473-1543

    who: polish cleric, loves ren, hypothesis: sun= center of universe

    • whats:
    • discovered ppl relied on Ptolemy's inaccuracy (-->R/G)
    • worked on hypo. from 1506-1530 (book- "On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres"
    • hinted that stars move b/c of earth's rotation
    • put into perspective the vastness of the universe
    • contradicted Aristotelian- heavens&earth not diff

    • whys:
    • opened up minds
    • conflicts with church (P/C)
  3. Johann Kepler
    1571-1630

    who: Brahe's (!!) assistant; worked to find relationship b/w math and astronomy

    • whats:
    • thought universe=math relationship and harmony of heavenly bodies
    • 1609- published "the new astronomy" (orbits=elliptical circular, move faster closer to sun)
    • 1619- dictated time to complete orbit= d(sun)
    • studied refraction of eyes (--> telescopes)

    • whys:
    • moved totally away from pass (A/P??)
    • proved Copernicus right
    • unorthodox lutheran- religious conflict over works
  4. Galileo Galilei
    1564-1642

    who: florentine working on motion and defending Copernicus

    • whats:
    • pioneered the experimental method (modern day!)
    • rolled ball across table--> law of inertia! natural to be moving, until stopped
    • made a telescope--> discovery of Jupiter's moons (NC)
    • 16320 published "dialogue on the two chief systems of the world", led to his imprisonment

    • whys:
    • proved Copernicus's theory
    • religious disputes
    • brought up ? of whether to rely on authority or science
  5. Isaac Newton
    1642-1727

    who: english scientist synthesized math with physics and astronomy

    • whats:
    • 1664-1666- arrived at conclusions: universal gravity, centripetal force, acceleration
    • 1684- published "math, principles of natural philosophy" (integrated all three)
    • laid down law(s)- of motion
    • dictated law of universal gravitation- objects all attracted, proportional to matter and square of dist. b/w them

    • whys:
    • able to synthesize past works
    • laws of motion
  6. Francis Bacon
    1561-1626

    who: english politician and writer, developed empiricism

    • whats:
    • rejected MA concept of speculation- theories
    • favored usage of observation
    • developed inductive reasoning- empiricism

    • whys:
    • experimental philosophy-spread
    • more accuracy
  7. Réne Descartes
    1596-1650

    who: french philosopher, using deductive math/reasoning to explain

    • whats:
    • 1619- discovered correlation b/w algebra and geometry--> analytical geometry
    • speculated matter= corpuscles, always in motion
    • led to "vacuum"-impossible- every action has eq reax- eternally
    • developed Cartesian dualism, reality= mind/matter

    • whys:
    • math
    • questioned natural philosophy
  8. John Locke and "essay concerning human understanding"
    1690

    who: new theory- humans form ideas from experiences

    • whatS:
    • insisted all ideas from experiences
    • environment wrote indiv. beliefs (on blank tablet)
    • contributed to sensationalism(derived from sensory impressions
    • justified BAcon's impt. of observation and experimentation

    • whys:
    • inspired the Enlightenment
    • rational/logical, SECULAR(god didn't instill values)
  9. Baron de Montesquieu
    1689-1755

    who: French philosopher examined social/political aspects through satire plays

    • whats:
    • published "the persian letters" (1721) (letter b/w two travelers- see european customs=unique)
    • saw relationship b/w men and women- represent social/political systems (women have power too!)
    • 1748- published "the spirit of laws" comparison of republics, monarchies, and despotisms
    • focused on raising liberty, lower tyranny-share power

    • whys:
    • criticized in creative way
    • opened minds for thought
  10. Voltaire
    1694-1778

    who: philosophe w/ a pessimistic view on the world

    • whats:
    • moved in with madame du chatlet (genius sci, not at academy b/c women)
    • influenced by MdC--> newton, science=wonderful, mixed with reason
    • held a pessimistic view- monarch=good (humans govern selves? no) equality? not really
    • challenged C- God built society but lets run by self(clockmaker)

    • whys:
    • kept true to SR ways
    • severely criticized- strong opinions
  11. Encyclopedia: The rational dictionary of the sciences, the arts and the crafts
    1751-1765

    who: a group effort, 72000 articles summarized new worldview

    • whatS:
    • examined human knowledge to teach others(goal)
    • glorified sci/industrial arts
    • ?Ed religion and immortality
    • criticized social institutions, legal injustice, and intolerance
    • convinced greater knowledge=greater happiness

    • whys:
    • summarized ALL ideas
    • widely read= revolutionary
    • looked at every aspect of human life
  12. Jean- Jacques Rousseau
    1712-1778

    who: swiss poor--> french salons through intellect

    • whatS:
    • committed to indiv freedom, but rationalism/civilization=bad(destiny indiv)
    • called for division of mean and women
    • declared women's roles in salons=unnatural(should be domestic)
    • wrote "the social contract" 1762, general will not always majority

    • whys:
    • attacked thoughts
    • womens oppression
  13. Frederick II "the great"
    r. 1740-1786

    who: king of prussia, worked to reform society by force, then humanely

    • whats:
    • conquered silesa(1742) of austria--> 7yrs war against maria teresa(want back)
    • realized need more humane approach- religious tolerance, adv. ed. legal justification, agriculture
    • defined self as "first servant of state" (NO DIVINITY)
    • Cameralism(?) developed- people serve monarchy, monarchy serves people

    • whys:
    • realized war was no answer
    • worked to reform society
    • cammeralism - emphasis on rationally, progress, utilitarianism
    • secular rule
  14. Catherine the Great
    r. 1762-1796

    who: married into power, with goals of NE culture, reform and expansion

    • whatS:
    • declared from beg. main concern=crown (murder Peter II)
    • brought N European culture to russia-brought in people, made good relations
    • reformed country-just legal system, r tolerance, adv ed, (nobility-completed control of serfs)
    • worked to expand land- partitions of poland(1772) with austria and prussia

    • whys:
    • good relations with everybody-no one against her
    • very absolutist- kill hubby for power
    • gave power back to nobles
  15. MAria Teresa& Joseph II
    (r. 1740-1780) (r. 1780-1790)

    who: ruler of austria, set on higher strength/efficiency; son=radical

    • whats:
    • MT limited papacy's political influence
    • increased power of centralized bureaucracy-even nobles pay taxes!
    • reduced noble's power over serfs and peasant tenants
    • Joe- abolished serfdom (1781), 1789- peasants can pay $

    • whys:
    • stronger nation state
    • E ideals- power to people-critical thinking

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