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  1. African American Families
    threat of sale: mechanism of control

    • Taylors Article-theortical approaches:
    • 1. Frazier/Moynihan: slavery destroyed black familial structures and cultures and gave rices to host dysfunctional family features
    • 2. emergence of "matriarchal" family system

    • Deficit (cultural deviant) model of fam structure
    • abnormal not ideal, other ethnic groups as reference pt
    • focus on problems, ignore strenghts
    • Cutlural-variant perspective (strenght bases)
    • unique, and functional, assets, resources, and focuses on structural
    • Williams et at:
    • family structure-married, single (w/ or w/o children)
    • D.V: social, psych, and economic well-being
    • family structure was on econ well-being not others

    • Cain/Combs-Ormes:
    • family structure: (IV) living alone, or with others
    • stress and parental practices (DV): parenting stress, emotional adjustment, paretning practices, home envir
    • results: diff in econom stability and poverty v fam stru
    • econom resources influence stress more
    • living alone had lowest income

    • Mandara and Murry:
    • family types: cohesive-authoritative, conflictive-authoritarian, and defenseive-neglectful

  2. American Indian Fmailies (not monolithic)
    Fed law requires person to have 1/4 blood to recieve services

    socia-historical forces influences: legacy of colonialism (forced assimilation)

    • stephen cornell-3 aspects
    • economic-how best to secure indian resources (land)
    • cultural-how best to assmiliate indiances into dominant culture
    • political-how best to control indians and bring about sol to first 2problems

    Colonialism-boarding school (edu for extrinction) goal-eradication, start acting like whites

    Historical Losses-losses from alcoholism, loss of respect, language, land, culture

    Long term effects of colonial legacy- current econ cond, histroical trauma, distress, substance abuse, oppression

    Challenges today: intermarriage, with non indians, no tribal identity, decreased language
  3. Latino/Hispanic Families
    • cultural values:
    • familialism: strong orientation to family, based on loyalty, attachemnt and solidarity, through emoti and finacial support, extended and pseudokinship ties

    Akey dynamic of familism is family connectedness: obligation to take care of nuclear/extended family members, shared collectively, parents and children make decisions.

    • Simpatia: no english def but mean politiness and repsectable, connecs postiv, smooth interpersonal relations. give priority fo low-conlfict relations
    • personalismo: great value to perosonal charac and inner qualities, same ethnic grp, socal reatlionships (trust, cooperation)
    • repsecto: adherence to authoritity (age/social pos)
    • marianismo: devotion shown to the virgin mary, female (stoicism, decorum), motherhood, feminitity
    • machismo: leadership and decision-making role, confident, men, risk takiing, aggressive

    subjugation to nature and have a present time orientation: future is unpredictable

    conceptual framework (not monolithic), product of socal forces,

    legacy of immigration and marginalization: Mexian Amer (push and pull, temp stay), Puerto ricans (citiziationship w/o voice, disadvantage) Cuban Americ (advantaged amercans, success story of ethnic enclaves)

    explanation of deisparties: culural (different values/beliefs, not compatible with success in society) structural (blaming the victim appraoch, diff beliefs are consequences of disparities)
  4. Asian American Families (28 subgroups)
    confusianism: kinship, filial peity, respect, self control, virtue, elderly, edu

    diffennces among grps: immigation experience, occu skills, cultural values, relgaion, langueage, income, edu, ethnic identity

    Theories to explain adjsutment in US: Masako (cultural, crticial theory), evelyn (cutlural, institutional approach)

    • Cutlural Theory: cutlure as costant, assmililation perspective, culture rooted in confucianism, similiar experiences, success stories,
    • Critical Theory: constraints imposed on Asian Amer (legal, pol, instit structures) denied right to become naturalized citizen, understand from social, econo, pol and hist contexts, frequent sourse of conflict
    • Instit/critical apprach: legal nd pol restrictions in U.S, chinese exclusion act, paper son immigrants, immigrant act, denied right to become naturalized citienzes until 1943, denied most civil rights, forced to congreate in urban ghettos

    • Split-Household Family: consequences of the 1882 Exclusion act, very few women and children around, most laborers came alone to work on railroad, mining, left wives behind in china
    • Small-Producer Family: Chinese Exclusion Act, Brides Act, Immigrants Act, families started small business and everyone worked in business
    • Dual Wage Earner Family: civill rights moviement, immigation act, open to most countires, highly edu, Hong Kong, whole family, segreation, kid problems

    Couple Relations: acculturation
  5. Southeast Asian Families in the US (legacy of War)
    • Stages of Migration:
    • prepartory stage-decision to move
    • act of migration-what was process like
    • period of overcompesation-after resettlement, incongruence
    • period of decomensation-after a few years, problems arise, inverse gender roles
    • transgenerational impact -changing parent/child relationship, language shift, acculturation gap

    Ethnogenesis theory

    • Traditional Family Values:
    • collectivity: kinship ties, reciprocity, mutual depend
    • hierachy of authority: respect and obeying
    • moderation and harmony: balance, middle ground
    • filial piety: family obligations, save the grains ofr hungry time
    • self-discipline: control of emotions, objective judments

    Immigration and Poverty: refugees came rural backgrounds to urban cities, status loss, below poverty line, dangerous--lead to distress, depression

    parental frustation, parental helplessness, parental abdication (i give up)

    • strategies
    • strategy 1: staff dev and capactiy building on cultural senseivity and competencey (train, hire, across cultures)
    • strategy 2: work with the clan and lineage system
    • strategy 3: work with existing organizations/groups (righ channel, clan, congregation, health prof)
  6. Gay and Lesbian Families
    • issues:
    • heterocentrism
    • Families where children were born or adopted while involving in a heterosexual relationship before coming out vs. families with well-established gay or lesbian identities prior to bearing or adopting children.

    70% are either the “natural born” child or a “step-child” of the householder.


    agruments against: religious, history, weakening of institution, open the door, unnecessary caue of civil unions,

    arguements for: violation of US constitution, econom and pract advantage to marraige, second class citizens

    gay v heteorsexual couples: no signif diffences (in psych adjustment, neurtoicism, agreeable and conscientiousness, intimacy) differences (openness, relationship style, confict resolution, social support)
  7. Quiz Question:
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