Bio CH 9 Vocab

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Bio CH 9 Vocab
2011-11-17 13:55:17
vocab bio

ch 9
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  1. Asexual Reproduction
    process in which a single cell or set of cells produces offspring that inherit all their genetic material from one parent
  2. Sexaul Reproduction
    process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent
  3. Chromatin
    combination of DNA and protein molecules, in the form of long, thin fibers, making up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
  4. Chromosome
    condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
  5. Sister Chromatid
    one of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell divides
  6. Centromere
    region where two sister chromatids are joined tightly together
  7. Cell Cycle
    sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the cell itself reproduces
  8. Interphase
    stage of the cell cycle during which a cell carries out its metabolic processes and performs its functions in the body
  9. Mitotic Phase
    stage of the cell cycle when a cell is actively dividing
  10. Mitosis
    process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei
  11. Cytokinesis
    process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided in two; usually follows mitosis and meiosis
  12. Spindle
    framework of microtubules that guide the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis
  13. Centrosome
    region of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contains structures called centrioles
  14. Prophase
    first stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, when the already replicated chromosomes condense
  15. Metaphase
    second stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II when the spindle is fully formed and all of the chromosomes are held in place
  16. Anaphase
    third phase of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the spindle
  17. Telophase
    final stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the chromosomes reach the spindle poles, nuclear envelopes form around each set of daughter chromosomes, and the nucleoli reappear
  18. Cell Plate
    disk containing cell wall material that develops in plant cells during cytokinesis, eventually dividing the cell into two daughter cells
  19. Benign Tumor
    mass of cells that remain at their original site
  20. Malignant Tomor
    mass of abnormal cells resulting from uncontrolled cancer cell division
  21. Cancer
    disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle
  22. Metastasis
    spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body
  23. Meiosis
    type of cell division that produces four cells, each with half as many chromosomes as the parent cell
  24. Karyotype
    display of a person's 46 chromosomes
  25. Homologous Chromosome
    one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent
  26. Sex Chromosome
    one of two chromosomes of the 23rd pair of human chromosomes, which determine an individual's gender
  27. Diploid
    having two homologous sets of chromosomes
  28. Gamete
    egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair
  29. Haploid
    having a single set of chromosomes
  30. Fertilization
    the fusion of the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell and the nucleus of a haploid egg cell, forming a diploid zygote
  31. Zygote
    diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg cell
  32. Tetrad
    group of four chromatids formed during prophase I of meiosis by the two sister chromatids in each of the two homologous chromosomes
  33. Crossing Over
    exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
  34. Genetic Recombination
    new combination of genetic information in a gamete as a result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis