Virology/Pneumotrophic diseases

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mrman
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117528
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Virology/Pneumotrophic diseases
Updated:
2011-11-17 17:22:48
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Virology Pneumotrophic diseases Micro
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Micro-virology
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  1. Examples of filterable viruses
    Tobacco mosaic virus

    Foot-and-mouth disease

    Yellow fever virus
  2. Symmetry of viruses
    • 1. Helix-tightly wound corkscrew
    • 2. Icosahedron (herpes virus)
    • 3. Complex- helical and icosahedron
  3. Infectious particle
    Virion

    -fully mature virus body
  4. Envelope composition
    Lipid membrane w/spikes (peplomers)
  5. Capsomere
    • protein subunits that protect nucleic acid
    • part of capsid
  6. Naked virus
    without envelope

    -has nucleocapsid = DNA + capsid
  7. Nucleocapsid
    • -part of naked virus
    • -DNA + capsid

    formation of Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  8. Bacterial viruses
    Bacteriophages

    -Inject DNA
  9. E. coli bacteriophage
    T4 phage
  10. Bacteriophage structure
    Head: Protein + DNA

    Tail: Protein only

    Tail fibers: specificity for different species

    Tail pins: have Lysozyme
  11. 5-step Replication of bacteriophage
    • 1. Attachment- absoption to host
    • 2. Penetration- injection of nucleic acid
    • 3. Biosynthesis- nucleic acids and proteins
    • 4. Maturation- assembly and packaging
    • 5. Release- of virion from cell
  12. Virulent phage
    Lytic phage- destroys bacterial cell
  13. Lysozyme from tail pins
    • -form small pores in peptidoglycan
    • -destroys peptidoglycan
  14. Smart viruses
    Know when to co-exist and when to kill

    • -Temperate phage
    • -Prophage
  15. Temperate phage
    • -Smart virus
    • -virus genome replicates with host genome
    • -follow lysogenic pathway
    • -can induce lytic pathway
  16. Prophage
    -genome of temperate phage integrated into host chromosome
  17. Lysogen
    Prokaryote containing a prophage
  18. Plaque Assays
    • -virus-mediated lysis
    • -plaque-forming units PFU
    • -produce clear zones
  19. Bacterial lawn
    plaques formed by Lytic bacteriophage
  20. 5-step Replication of Animal virus
    • 1. Attachment- at plasma membrane
    • 2. Penetrations- of whole virus
    • 3. Uncoating
    • 4. a. DNA replication- in nucleus
    • b. RNA replication- in cytoplasm
    • 5. Envelope aquisition- lipids come from host cell

    *RNA replicates FASTER than DNA
  21. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
    Naked viruses
  22. HIV peplomers
    • GP120
    • GP41- T helper cells CD-4
  23. RNA virues
    • Rhabdovirus
    • Coronavirus
    • Orthomyxovirus
    • Paramyxovirus
  24. Retroviruses
    Reverse transcriptase- mRNA to dsDNA

    • HIV
    • HTLV
  25. Provirus
    animal virus genome integrated into host cell genome

    HIV
  26. Productive infection
    cell lysis with virion
  27. Cytopathic effects
    causes cell lysis to host cell death

    • CMV = Owl Eyes- intranuclear inculsions
    • Rabies = Negri bodies- pyramidal cells, purkinje cells
  28. Negri bodies
    CPE of rabies encephalitits

    • -cellular inclusions
    • -pyramidal cells of Ammon's horn
    • -Purkinje cells of cerebellum
    • -also cells of Medulla and other ganglia
  29. Oncogenic viruses
    20% of human tumors

    • -EBV - linked to Burkitt Lymphoma (tumor of jaw)
    • -HPV - cervical cancer
  30. Viroids
    • only in plants
    • -small, circular ssRNA
    • -no capsid
    • -no protein-coding genes

    • Coconut cadang viroid
    • Citrus exocortis viroid
    • Potato spindle tuber viroid
  31. Prions
    • -Proteinaceous infectious particles
    • -very resilient
    • -causes nerve cell death--> sponge-like holes in brain
    • -Spongiform change
    • -dementia, weakened muscles, loss of balance

    • Scrapie- goats, sheep
    • CJD
    • TSE
    • BSE- mad cow disease
  32. Scrapie prion
    • PrPc = normal
    • PrPsc = abnormal; causes folding changes; does not change sequence

    PrPsc kills neurons
  33. CJD
    • -caused by prions
    • -demonstrates abnormal EEG
    • -diffuse spongiform changes and coalescent vacuoles
  34. Vaccines
    • inactivated- heat/chemical treated (Salk)
    • attenuated- virulence decreased; replicate slowly (Sabine)
    • genetically engineered- viral subunits synthesized (HepB capsid proteins synthesized in yeasts)
  35. Virus identification
    • -CPE
    • -Serological tests
    • -Plaque formation
    • -Electron microscopy
    • -cultivating methods
  36. Influenza virus
    Orthomyxoviridae

    • -A, B, C
    • -respiratory droplets
    • -chills, fatigue, pain, severe cough, congestion
    • -Fever

    -invasion of trachea and bronchi
  37. Influenza viral peplomers
    Orthomyxoviridae

    • Hemagglutinin (H)
    • -attach and penetrate host cell

    • Neuraminidase (N)
    • -helps release virions from host cell

    *mutations occur in H and N spikes
  38. Influenza A
    Orthomyxoviridae

    • -every year
    • -causes most epidemics
  39. Influenza B
    Orthomyxoviridae

    • -every year
    • -less common than type A
  40. Influenza C
    Orthomyxoviridae

    • -mild respiratory illness
    • -no epidemics
  41. Antigenic drift
    • -mutations within genome
    • -Random
  42. Antigenic shift
    • -different strains infect same host
    • -Recombination = new viral genome
    • -no mutation

    -major cause of Pandemics
  43. Complications of influenza
    -Pneumonia - infants, elderly, immunocompromised

    -Guillain-Barre - body damages own peripheral nerves

    -Reye - children who take ASA; sudden acute encephalopathy and liver problems
  44. Rhinovirus
    Picornaviridae

    • -airborne respiratory droplets and contaminated objects
    • -thrive in nose
    • -Common Cold
  45. Adenovirus
    Adenoviridae

    • -respiratory droplets
    • -Common Cold
    • -induce formation of inclusion bodies in host cells
  46. Complications of Adenovirus
    • -Acute febrile pharyngitis
    • -Pharyngoconjunctival fever
    • -Acute respiratory disease

    -Anhy of these can progress to pneumonia
  47. Paramyxoviridae
    • -Measles (Rubeola)
    • -Mumps
    • -Parainfluenza
    • -RSV
  48. RSV
    Paramyxoviridae

    • -children <1 y/o
    • -cells fuse together into syncytia
  49. SARS
    Coronaviridae

    • -severe respiratory illness and pneumonia
    • -close person-to-person contact
    • -natural host may be bats
    • -10 day isolation
    • -forms multi-nucleated cells in lung
  50. Herpesviridae diseases
    • -HSV-1 above
    • -HSV-2 below
    • -VZV
    • -EBV
    • -HHV6 infants
    • -HHV8 Kaposi's sarcoma

    *total of 8 species infect humans
  51. HSV-1
    Herpesviridae

    • -above the waist
    • -cold sores

    • -latent viruses in sensory ganglia
    • -reactivate and move to epithelium
  52. HSV-2
    Herpesviridae

    • -below the waist
    • -genital sores/blisters
    • -cervical cancers

    • -latent virus in nerve cells
    • -recurrence 8-10 times a year
  53. Complications of HSV-2
    • -cervical cancer
    • -encephalitis
    • -herpes keratitis -scars cornea; blindness

    • -neonatal herpes -life-threatening
    • -passed to newborns during birth
    • -delayed mental development
    • -blindness and seizures
  54. Chickenpox
    • Herpesviridae
    • Varicella-zoster virus VZV

    • -skin contact
    • -respiratory droplets
    • -red, itchy rash
    • -fluid-filled vesicles

    Hemorrhagic chickenpox complication
  55. Complications of VZV
    #1 = bacterial skin infections

    • Reye's syndrome- convulsions, fever, brain/liver
    • Shingles
  56. Viruses that cause Reye's syndrome
    • VZV
    • Influzenza (Orthomyxoviridae)
  57. HHV-6
    • Herpesviridae
    • human herpesvirus 6

    • -Infants 6mo-3yr
    • Roseola infantum
    • -high fever
    • -red rash

    • -respiratory secretions
    • -saliva

    • -common with bone morrow transplant recipients
    • -may be associated with MS
  58. Shingles
    • Herpesviridae
    • VZV

    • -reactivated as adults
    • -blisters and red patches on body trunk
    • -facial paralysis
    • -ice-pick pains
    • -Postherpetic neuralgia- pain after blisters disappear
  59. Roseola Infantum
    HHV-6

    • -high fever
    • -red rash
  60. HHV-8
    Herpesviridae

    • Kaposi's sarcoma- dark, purple skin lesions
    • -angiogenic tumor of blood vessel walls

    Oncogenic
  61. Monkey B virus
    Herpes B virus
    Herpesvirus simiae

    -acute encephalitis in humans
  62. Measels (Rubeola)
    Paramyxoviridae

    -respiratory droplets

    • -Koplik spots- red patches with white grain centers along gum line and mouth
    • -appear 2-4 days after onset of symptoms

    -Maculopapules-at hairline, spread to face, trunk, extremities
  63. Mumps (Infectious parotitis)
    Paramyxoviridae

    • -enlarged jaw tissues from swollen salivary glands
    • -blocked ducts from parotid glands
    • Orchitis- swelling and damage of testis
  64. Koplik spots
    • Measels/Rubeola
    • paramyxoviridae

    -red patches w/white grain centers in mouth and gum line
  65. Rubella (German measels)
    Togaviridae

    • Maculopapular rash- similar to Rubeola
    • Congenital rubella- fetus infected through placenta
    • -destroys fetal capillaries and hypoxia
  66. Fifth disease
    Erythema Infectiosum
    Parvoviridae

    • -respiratory droplets
    • -mild rash
    • -fiery red rash on cheeks, ears, trunk

    -in adults, symptoms similar to rheumatoid arthritis
  67. HPV
    basic biology
    • Papillomavirus
    • -non-enveloped
    • -icosahedral particles
    • -capsid of 2 proteins: major (L1), minor (L2)
    • -DNA viruses
    • -oncogenic
  68. HPV oncogenic strains
    • 6
    • 16
    • 18
    • 11

    • -lead to neoplasia
    • Polyoma and Papilloma viruses
  69. Gardisil
    protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18

    -vaccine made from non-infectious HPV-like particles
  70. HPV
    -S/Sx
    • Papillomavirus
    • -infects basal cells of dermal layer
    • -Condylomata- genital warts; some strains of HPV
    • -Cervical cancer- 2nd cause of cancer death in women
  71. Papovaviridae
    named for 3 main members:

    • PApillomavirus
    • POlyomavirus
    • Vacuolating Agent
  72. HPV Oncogenesis
    HPV type 16

    • E6 and E7 - genes expressed early
    • -interact with cellular proteins
    • -called oncogenes - promote cancers
  73. HPV oncogenes
    • E6 -binds p53 in host cell
    • -promotes degredation of cellular p53 via ubiquitin dependent pathway--> apoptosis and cancer

    E7 -binds pRb, inactivates it

    p53 and pRb = tumor suppressors involved in DNA repair and cell death
  74. p53
    • -tumor suppressor protein
    • -arrests cell cycle when DNA is damaged via apoptosis

    E6 binds and degregates p53
  75. Smallpox (variola)
    Poxviridae

    Macules-->papules-->fluid-filled vesicles-->pustules-->pox

    -eradicated in 1979
  76. Molluscum Contagiosum
    Poxviridae

    • -mildly contagious
    • -wart-like skin lesions
    • -lesions: firm, waxy, elevated, flesh-tones, emit milky substance

    transmitted by sexual contact

    • -facial skin in children
    • -genitals in adult

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