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  1. what is fx of prostate gland?
    produce prostatic fluid and store it for expulsion during ejaculation
  2. what are the zones of Prostate gland?
    and what types of cance (if any) do you see in each?
    • central zone: around prostatic urethra, dont see cancer here
    • transition zone: 5% of prostrate, benign prostatic hyperplasia
    • peripheral zone: 70%, main prostatic glands found here, most susceptible to inflammation, palpable duirng digital, major site of cancer
  3. which zone has most of the glands?
    which zone is palpable?
    which zone makes it hard to urinate?
    • peripheral
    • peripheral
    • transitional
  4. what is in the prostatic urethra?
    sperm and urine (woo!)
  5. which zone cannot become inflamed? or get cancer?
  6. what does benign prostatic hyperplasia mean?
    where does it happen?
    what does it cause to form
    • too many cells
    • forms nodules in the transitional zone - hard to pee
  7. what is the layer of connective tissue called?
    fibromuscular stroma
  8. whats on top of urethra?
  9. what are the two tubes that come and meet together in the prostrate gland?
    what do they do?
    ductus deferens - bring sperm
  10. is the prostrate branched or unbranched?
  11. what kind of cells (histologically) are in there?
    how do tehy look togehter?
    • simple epithelia
    • irregular bc glands point every which way
  12. what should be between the glands if all is normal?
  13. what are signs of abnormal tissue?
    • large number of cells
    • spacing between, no CT, bumping
    • even more unorganized than normal
    • prominent nucleoli
    • spreading in the prostate
    • glands around the nerves in the fibromuscular capsule on the outside
  14. what are concretions?
    what determines the # of them?
    • precipitation of secretory material around cell debris in lumen
    • may be calcified
    • the older you are the more concretions you have
  15. what does the prostrate gland secrete?
    • enzymes: PAP (prostatic acid phosphatase)
    • frbrinolysin
    • citric acid
    • zinc
    • serine protease (PSA- prostrate specific antigen)
  16. what hormone is the prostrate dependent on?
    dihydrotestosterone (made from testosterone)
  17. what family is PSA in?
    KLK - also chews up desmosomes
  18. what is purpose of PSA?
    explain why they have a PSA test
    what are the stats of the test?
    what is another way to look at it?
    it is a protease that liquifies the semen so the sperm can move more easily, also maybe women's cervixes

    will be elevated levels of PSA if you have cancer

    • 1-3 = normal
    • 4-10 = 35% chance of having
    • >10 = 67% risk

    look at it as a ratio of free PSA/bound PSA to serine proteases (low ratio = cancer)
  19. what are the ethics of prostrate cancer testing?
    it has saved a low amount of lives but still that is a good thing

    it has caused a lot of stress, money, and testing for people that do not have it (false positive)
  20. what produces PSA?
    shoudl there be high or low levels?
    the liver, low
  21. where is PSA normally?
    it is only secreted into prostatic secretion, and it should not circulate the blood (but it will if u have cancer)
  22. BPH (nodular hyperplasia)
    - how common and what happens?
    • present in 50% o men more than 50 yrs of age, 95% in more than 70 yrs
    • leads to obstruction of urethra (clinical symptoms in 5-10% of cases)
  23. malignant prostatic cancer
    - how common?
    - location?
    • affects 1/20 men (70% of whom are between 70 and 80)
    • develop in peripheral zone
  24. What are is the Gleisan score?
    • scale: 2-10
    • look at 2 diff sections (1-5) and then add them together
    • 2- a lot more glandular tissue
    • 3- starting to back up against each other without CT between them
    • 4 - start getting sheets of glandular tissue
    • 5 - complete loss of glandular morphology
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