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  1. The Peripheral Nervous system (PNS) is made up of what?
    Sensory and somatic neurons that arise from the spinal cpord to service regions of the body and the senory receptors.
  2. Sensory Receptors
    Are cells that are specialized to respond to changes (Stimuli) in their environment to typically produce graded potentials in efferent nerve fibers
  3. Sensation
    Is awareness (CNS) of stimulus
  4. Perception
    is the interpretation (CNS) of the meaning of the stimulus
  5. What are the Classifications by Stimulus Type?
    • Mechanoreceptors
    • Thermoreceptors
    • Photoreceptors
    • Chemoreceptors
    • Nocioceptors
  6. Mechanoreceptors
    • Respond to mechanical force like touch and pressure
    • (Ion channels)
  7. Thermoreceptors
    • Respond to changes in temperature
    • Hypothalamus
  8. Photoreceptors
    • Responds to changes in light energy
    • (Eyes)
  9. Chemoreceptors
    • Responds to the change in concentration of a chemical
    • Hypothalamus
    • If to much of something like Na+ it tells body to flush it out
  10. Nocioceptors
    • Responds to pian
    • Substances P- can realease Dopamine (ex. cutters, excessive tattoos)
  11. What are the Classifications by Location?
    • Exteroceptors
    • Interoceptors
    • Proprioceptors
  12. Exteroceptors
    Respones to stimuli a rising from outside the body
  13. Interoceptors
    Responds to stimuli occuring from within the body; Visceral
  14. Propriceptors
    • Responds to changes in limb position;
    • Lies within the skeletal muscles, joints and ligaments and Connective Tissue of bone and muscle
  15. What are the Classifications by Structural Complexity?
    • Simple
    • Complex
  16. Simple
    • Modified dendritic endings of sensory Neurons that monitor general sensory info
    • In skin- Merkel Disks
  17. Complex
    Sense organs that are localized collections of cells associated with Vision (eyes), Hearing (ears), Equilibrium, Smell (Olfaction), Taste (Gustatory)
  18. Tactile Sensation
    (touch, pressure, stretch, vibration) temperature and monitoring and nocioreceptors
  19. Unencapsulated Dendritic Endings
    • Merkel Disks in the skin, hair follicle receptors
    • Free (naked) nerve endings
    • Most abundant in the epithelia and CT that ate unmyelinated
    • Small- diameter, C-Fibers
  20. Encapsulated Dendritic Endings
    One or more fiber terminals of sensory neurons enclosed in a CT capsule and are normally mechanoreceptors
  21. The Somatosensory System serves the body.......
    • Wall and limbs
    • Receives input from exteroceptors, proptioceptors, & Interoceptors (sensation)
    • Sends input to CNS for interpretation (perception) which makes a choice on how to proceed
    • Sends Efferent signals to efferent cells which respond
  22. What happens when processing at the Receptor Level?
    • Sensory receptors send info. about the stimulus (strength, duration, pattern) in the frequency of nerve impulses
    • Adapation
  23. Adaptation
    • A change in sensitivity at the sensory receptor in the presence of a constant stimulus
    • Harder and harder to get an Action Potential to occur
  24. What happens when processing at the Circuit Level?
    Delivers impulses to the appropriate levels of the Cerebral Cortex for localization and perception using a circuit of neurons (1st order, 2nd order, ect.)
  25. What happens when processing at the Perceptual Level?
    Interpretation of sensory input occuring within the cerebral cortex
  26. What are the main aspects of sensory perception?
    • Perceptual Detection
    • Magnitude Estimation
    • Spatial Discrimination
    • Feature abstraction
    • Quality Discrimination
    • Pattern Recognition
  27. Perceptual Detection
    detecting that a stimulus had occurred
  28. Magnitude Estimation
    How intense the stimulus occurred
  29. Spatial Discrimination
    Location of stimulus
  30. Feature abstraction
    Texture interpretation and complex sensation
  31. Quality Discrimination
    • Varieties of stimulus
    • (Bitter and sweet of taste)
  32. Pattern Recognition
    The ability to recognize a familiar pattern (environment)
  33. Pain Receptors
    Are activated by extremes of pressure and temperature and by the release of chemicals (histamine, K+, ATP,acids, Bradykinins) from injured cells
  34. Pain fibers
    • & burning pain fibers,
    • use glutamate and substance P as neurotransmitters in the 1st order neurons
  35. Pain suppression
Card Set
Chapter 13-The PNS and reflex activity
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