Viscerotropic/Neurotropic viral dz

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Author:
mrman
ID:
117572
Filename:
Viscerotropic/Neurotropic viral dz
Updated:
2011-11-17 19:23:27
Tags:
Viscerotropic Neurotropic viral diseases
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Description:
micro-viral diseases; Viscerotropic/Neurotropic
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  1. Viscertropic viral diseases
    -blood, liver, spleen, intestines (Lg and Sm)

    • -Yellow fever
    • -Dengue fever
    • -Mononucleosis
    • -Hepatitis
    • -CMV
    • -HIV
    • -Viral gastroenteritis
    • -Viral fevers
  2. Yellow Fever
    • Flaviviridae
    • RNA virus
    • -arbovirus = arthropod-borne (mosquito)

    • -injected into bloodstream and infects liver
    • -fever, bleeding gums, bloody stool, jaundice
    • -high mortality rate = internal bleeding

    Vaccine available
  3. Breakbone Fever
    Saddleback fever
    • Dengue Fever
    • Flaviviridae

    -temperature fluctuations
  4. Dengue Fever
    • Flaviviridae
    • RNA virus
    • mosquito transmission

    -replicates in platelets and WBCs

    • -Sharp pain in muscles and joints
    • -high fever; sweats
    • -Breakbone/Saddleback fever

    Vaccine NOT available
  5. Mosquito species of Yellow/Dengue Fever
    Aedes aegypti

    Aedes albopicticus
    (Dengue)
  6. Dengue Fever complications
    • Hemorrhagic fever
    • -skin rash
    • -severe vomitting
    • -shock
  7. Infectious mononucleosis
    • Herpesviridae
    • Epstein-Barr virus

    • -contact with saliva; several months in saliva
    • -targets B-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen

    • -swollen glands
    • -fever
    • -sore throat
    • -damaged B cells
  8. Diagnosis Mononucleosis
    Downey cells: damaged B-lymphocytes with vacuolated and granulated cytoplasm

    • Heterophile anitbody: Ab's react w/antigens from other species
    • -Paul-Bunnell Test: pt's serum agglutinates RBCs of horse and sheep
    • (also called Monospot Slide Test)
  9. Complications with EBV
    Burkitt's lymphoma- cancer/tumor of tissue in the jaw

    Chronic fatigue syndrome
  10. Hepatitis A
    • Picornaviridae
    • HAV

    • -Inflammatory disease of Liver
    • -anorexia
    • -N/V
    • -Jaundice

    • -short-incubation
    • -fecal-contaminated food/water transmission

    -Immunity results from full recovery
  11. Hepatitis B
    • Hepadnaviridae
    • HBV

    • Fatigue
    • Anorexia
    • Dark urine (RBCs lysed)
    • Clay-colored stools
    • Jaundice
    • Taste change- smokers develop distaste for cigarettes

    • -long-incubation
    • -Contact w/body fluids transmission

    *more infectious than HIV
  12. Complication of Hep B
    • Hepatocarcinoma
    • -later in life, possibly triggered by stress/immunity
  13. Hep B transmission
    Body fluids:

    • -nonsterile tatooing
    • -contaminated needles
    • -nonsterile dental tools
    • -sexually transmitted
  14. Hepatitis C
    • Flaviviridae
    • HCV

    • Slow liver damage and cirrhosis
    • -Contaminated tatooing, drug users, organ transplants
  15. Treatment for Hep C
    • Alpha Interferon
    • Ribivirin
  16. Flaviviridae
    • Hepatitis C
    • Yellow fever
    • Dengue fever
    • West Nile encephalitis
  17. Viral gastroenteritis
    several viruses:

    • Rotavirus (most common)
    • Norovirus
    • Cocksackie virus
    • Echovirus
    • Hep A
  18. Viral fevers
    • Colorado tick fever
    • Reoviridae
    • Bunyaviridae: Sandfly fever, Rift Valley fever
  19. Viral Hemorrhagic fevers
    • Arenaviridae (Lassa fever)
    • Marburg and Ebola
    • Filoviridae

    • -cause capillaries to burst
    • massive bleeding = death
  20. Lassa Fever
    • Arenaviridae
    • RNA virus

    rodents/rats = reservoir
  21. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
    Bunyaviridae

    • -Fever
    • -Acute renal failure
    • -Respiratory failure

    -airborne viral particles from dried urine/feces of rodents (deer mice)
  22. Cytomegalovirus
    Herpesviridae

    • -can produce serious birth defects
    • -primary infection usually asymptomatic
    • -owl eyes CPE in nucleus of neuron soma

    -transmitted with saliva, breast milk, sex, blood

    • -elderly
    • -immunocompromised
    • -AIDS pts--> 1/3 aquire CMV-retinitis
  23. AIDS
    disease
    • Retroviridae
    • Human immunodefiency virus (HIV)

    • -retrovirus = reverse transcriptase
    • -provirus = dsDNA from mRNA enters chromosome

    -AIDS = clinical manisfestation of HIV infection
  24. HIV
    cellular biology
    • Cellular targets:
    • -T helper lymphocytes
    • -Monocytes
    • -Macrophages
    • -Microglia

    gp120 and gp41 = proteins of peplomers in envelope
  25. gp120
    gp41
    peplomer spikes

    • gp120 = attachment proteins; attaches to CD4 receptors
    • gp41 = fusion protein
  26. HIV genes
    • gag - viral capsid proteins
    • pol - reverse transcriptase

    LTR- long terminal repeat

    LTR-->gag-->pol
  27. CD4
    • -coreceptor of T-helper cells (TCR)
    • -CD4 amplifies signal generated by TCR by recruiting enzyme lyrosine kinase lck

    -lck- activates molecules involved in signaling cascade of activated Tcell (cytokines!)

    -CD4 recognizes MHC Class II
  28. HIV and CD4
    CD4 = primary receptor used by HIV-1 to gain entry

    • -attached to CD4 with gp120 in envelope
    • -binding causes conformational change of gp120--> allows HIV-1 to bind to chemokine recptors CCR5 and CXCR4

    -gp41 structural change--> HIV inserts into host cell and outer membrane of virus fuses w/cell membrane
  29. AIDS S/Sx
    AIDS = < 200 CD4 T-cells

    4-8wks after exposure = asymptomatic or mild flu-like

    • Opportunistic infections:
    • Karposi's sarcoma
    • cervical cancers
    • lymphomas
    • CMV-retinitis
    • any bacterial disease
  30. Test for AIDS
    • 1. Western Blot for HIV proteins
    • 2. ELISA test for Ab against HIV
  31. Treatment for HIV/AIDS
    • 1. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • -drugs act as nucleotide analogs; stop transcription
    • -Lamivudine, AZT, ddI, ddC

    • 2. Protease inhibitors
    • -Invirase, Indinavir, Ritonavir

    HAART- drug combinations
  32. HAART
    highly active antiretroviral therapy; not a cure

    • 1. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • 2. Protease inhibitors
  33. Retrovirus mutations
    Retroviruses mutate very rapidly:

    reverse transcriptase has no corrective functions
  34. Neurotropic Viral Diseases
    • Rabies- Rhabdoviridae
    • Polio- Picornaviridae
    • West nile- Flaviviridae
    • Lymphocytic chloriomeningitis
  35. Rabies
    • Rhabdoviridae
    • bullet-shaped
    • -transmission via saliva
    • -disease depends on viral load the human receives
    • -incubation = 6d-1yr

    • Fever
    • HA
    • Tension paralysis
    • hydrophobia
    • -very deadly
  36. Rabies treatment
    gamma-gobulin
  37. Polio
    Picornaviridae

    • -contaminated food/water
    • -meningitis
    • -medulla infection = bulbar polio
    • -upper body nerves affected--> mild to severe Upper body paralysis

    Vaccine: Salk's, Sabin's
  38. Salk vaccine
    formaldehyde inactivated vaccine
  39. Sabine vaccine
    attentuated oral vaccine
  40. West Nile encephalitis
    Flaviviridae

    • -transmitted via mosquito bite (Culex mosquito on birds)
    • -can develop encephalitis and meningitis

    vaccine for horses NOT humans
  41. Mosquito for West Nile
    Culex mosquito vector from birds
  42. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
    Arenaviridae

    • -exposure to rodent feces
    • -mild-influenza s/s
    • -fever
    • -malaise
    • -HA

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