Anatomy (15).txt

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alannaheeres
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117599
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Anatomy (15).txt
Updated:
2011-11-17 20:39:17
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CV Blood
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CV Blood
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  1. What are the 3 functions of blood?
    • Transportation
    • Regulation of body temperature
    • Protection from disease & infection
  2. Function of blood:
    O2, CO2, metabolic wastes, nutrients, & hormone
    Transportation
  3. Function of blood:
    Vasodilatation of surface vessels dump heat
    Regulation of body temperature
  4. Function of blood:
    Contains cells of the immune defence system
    Protection from disease and infection
  5. Thicker (more viscous) than water & slightly adhesive
    Physical characteristics of blood
  6. What is the temperature of blood?
    Temperature of 100.4 degrees F (38 C)
  7. What is the pH of blood?
    7.4 (7.35-7.45)
  8. What % of total body weight is blood?
    Blood
  9. What is the average blood volume for a male/female
    • male: 5-6 liters
    • female: 4-5 liters
  10. Blood consists of ____________ and ______________ ________
    plasma; formed elements (cells)
  11. What % of blood is plasma?
    55%
  12. What % of blood are cells?
    45%
  13. What % of blood cells are red?
    99% RBC
  14. Blood plasmsa is over _____ % water
    over 90%
  15. Blood plasma:
    Created in liver
    Confined to bloodstream
    plasma proteins (7%)
  16. Blood plasma:
    Maintain blood osmotic pressure
    albumin
  17. Blood plasma:
    antibodies bind to foreign substances called _______
    antigens
  18. Blood plasma:
    antibodies bind to foreignsubstances called antigens
    globulins (immunoglobulins)
  19. Blood plasma:
    For clotting
    Fibrinogen
  20. What % of blood is not water or plasma proteins?
    2% other substances
  21. Blood plasma:
    Electrolytes (Na and Cl ions), nutrients, hormones, vitamins, gases (CO2), waste products (urea, ammonia)
    other substances found in the blood
  22. What are the formed elements of blood?
    • RBC (erythrocytes)
    • WBC (leukocytes)
    • Platelets (special cell fragments)
  23. What are the 2 types of white blood cells?
    • Granular leukocytes
    • Agranular leukocytes
  24. Contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin that gives blood its red color– 1/3 of cell’s weight is hemoglobin
    Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or Erythrocytes
  25. What type of disk is RBCs?
    Biconcave disk
  26. – increased surface area/volume ratio
    – flexible shape for narrow passages
    – no nucleus or other organelle
    Biconcave disk
  27. What speed do RBC enter circulation?
    new RBCs enter circulation at 2 million/second from red bone marrow
  28. What is the life span of RBCs?
    approximately 120 days
  29. Why do RBCs live only 120 days?
    • – wear out from bending to fit through capillaries
    • – no repair possible due to lack of organelle
  30. How are worn out RBCs removed?
    • By fixed macrophages in spleen and liver
    • Breakdown products are recycled
  31. What does globin consist of?
    4 polypeptide chains
  32. Attached to each polypeptide chain
    One heme pigment
  33. Each heme contains an _____ _____ (Fe+2) that can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecul
    iron ion
  34. Can carry 4 oxygen molecules from lungs to tissue cells
    Each hemoglobin molecule
  35. Transports 23% of total CO2 waste from tissue cells to lungs for release
    – combines with amino acids in globin portion of Hb
    – CO2 also travels dissolved in blood plasma
    Hemoglobin
  36. have a nucleus and no hemoglobin
    WBCs (leukocytes)
  37. Granular or agranular classification based on presence of cytoplasmic granules made visible by staining
    WBCs (leukocytes)
  38. WBC:
    neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils
    Granulocytes
  39. WBC:
    monocyes or lymphocytes
    Agranulocytes
  40. • Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
    • Nuclei = 2 to 5 lobes connected by thin strands
    Neutrophils (Granulocyte)
  41. • Granules filled with digestive enzymes
    • Function-phagocytic
    Neutrophils (Granulocyte)
  42. Fastest response of all WBC to bacteria
    Neutrophil function
  43. Release lysozymes which destroy/digest bacteria
    Release defensin proteins that act like antibiotics & poke holes in bacterial cell walls destroying them
    Release strong oxidants (bleach-like, strong chemicals ) that destroy bacteria
    Neutrophil Function (Direct actions against bacteria)
  44. Nucleus with 2 or 3 lobes connected by a thin strand
    Large, uniform-sized granules stain orangered with acidic dyes
    Granules contain enzymes that end allergic reactions and attack parasites
    Eosinophils (Granulocyte)
  45. Large, dark purple, variable-sized granules
    Irregular, multi-lobed nuclei
    Granules contain substances that intensify inflammatory reaction (histamine)
    Basophils (Granulocyte)
  46. Dark, oval to round nucleus
    Do not contain granules
    Play a role in immunity
    Lymphocyte (Agranulocyte)
  47. Lymphocyte Functions:
    Destroy bacteria and their toxins
    Turn into plasma cells that produces antibodies
    B cells
  48. Lymphocyte Functions
    – attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells & some bacteria
    T cells
  49. Nucleus is kidney or horse-shoe shaped
    Largest WBC in circulating blood
    Monocyte (Agranulocyte)
  50. Does not remain in blood long before migrating to the tissues
    Differentiate into macrophages
    • fixed group found in specific tissues
    – alveolar macrophages in lungs
    – kupffer cells in liver
    • wandering group gathers at sites of infection
    Monocyte (Agranulocyte)
  51. Less numerous than RBCs
    – 4000 to 11,000 cells per drop of blood
    WBC
  52. A high white blood cell count– microbes, strenuous exercise, anesthesia or surgery
    Leukocytosis
  53. Low white blood cell count
    – radiation, shock or chemotherapy
    Leukopenia
  54. Are produced in the red bone marrow
    WBCs
  55. Emigration & Phagocytosis in WBCs:
    Roll along endothelium, stick to it & squeeze between cells.
    WBCs
  56. Help WBCs stick to endothelium
    -displayed near site of injury
    Adhesion molecules (selectins)
  57. Found on neutrophils assist in movement through wall
    Molecules (integrins)
  58. phagocytize bacteria & debris
    – chemotaxis of both
    • kinins from injury site & toxins
    Neutrophils & macrophages
  59. Disc-shaped, 2 - 4 micron cell fragment with no nucleus
    Are fragments of large cells called megakaryocyte
    Platelet (Thrombocyte)
  60. Promote blood clotting by sticking together in response to certain release factors released from the wall of damaged blood vessels
    Platelet (Thrombocyte)
  61. Injecting previously stored RBC’s before an athletic event– more cells available to deliver oxygen to tissues
    Blood Doping
  62. Why is blood doping dangerous?
    • – increases blood viscosity
    • – forces heart to work harder

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