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What is the primary purpose of API 36-2618?
To outline general responsibilites and authority of NCOs
According to API 36-2618 into what 3 tiers is the enlisted structure divided?
- airman tier
- NCO tier
- Senior NCO tier
What responsibilites or roles are enlisted personnel expected to progress through during each tier?
- Airman tier-progress from apprentice and worker and finally to journeyman an supervisor.
- NCO TIER --individual is primarily a craftsman an supervisor
- Senior NCO Tier- Transition the individual from craftsman/supervisor/manager to superintendant
What are a few suggestions for staying qualified in your job?
Get out of the office and into the field. Keep up to date
To understand the principles of leadership an supervisory techniques,what are some examples of ways you can use supervisory techniques effectivly?
- 1-ensure feedback takes place
- 2-use the EES system properly without inflating your ratings.
- 3-Counsel your subordinates
- 4-reward and punish as needed
When are you a role model?
both on and off duty
What are potential consequenses of NOT correcting marginal or substandard behavior or performance?
- -poor morale
- -saftey hazards
- - a loss of respect for your authority
- -continued poor judgement or pefromance
7 madatory requirements of general responsibilties of an NCO?
- -Secure and promote PME
- -Ensure safe keepingof AF property
- -Execute all duties in a timely manner
- -possess a thorough understanding of standards,customs&courtesies
- -actively support "zero tolerance"
- -conduct individual and group training
Why is it important for an individual to know his or her responsibilites as an NCO?
Helps the NCO develop supervisory & leadership skills while projecting a positive military image.
Why is PME a major factor in determining NCO promotion and retention?
NCO learn and improve leadership and management skills through PME
Though not all inclusive,what are some general NCO responsilbilties?
completing PME,,formal civilian education,demonstrate explemplry attributs expected of an NCO both of and off duty.
Name the responsibilties of a technical sergeants?
Holds 7 skill level, performs highly complex technical duties and provide responsible supervision.
Why must the NCO set the example of leadership and mantain standards?
NCOs must set the example an maintain standards before they can hold anyone else accountable
What other constructive attributes must the NCO leader develop in subordinates and peers?
- must develop initative
- and positive attitudes in subordinates and peers
NCO must be managers,,Describe what resources must be used in an efficient manner to achieve mission accomplishment?
They must use manpower,material,money,space and time in an efficient manner
Describe the role of the NCO as a trainer an counselor?
the NCO supervisor is the key element in planning,conducting an evaluating training.. The NCOs role as a counselor falls in 3 categ. Career counseling,Performance Counseling,Personnel Counseling
NCOs have many responsibilites in their subordinates training program?what are they
- Record keepers,
- evaluators and counselors
What are the objectives of the EES?
To provide ratees with specific standards of performance and to provide an official record of performace
How do the procedures for evaluating airman and NCOs differ?
The procedures are pretty much the same. ITs the process used toadjust for the various levels of responsibilty among NCO&airman that differ
What is the impact of failing to give performance feedback to subordinates?
subordinates may not know their performance needs improvment
What valuable information does the EES/EPR provide to the ratee?
tells the ratee what is expected on the job, how well he or she is performing ,an it geerates a formal reocrd of that performance
Whose responsibility is it to establish and communicate clear standards before observing performance?
Who is in the best postion to provide feedback to the subordinates?
During which step of the EES does a supervisor evaluate performance by weighing an individuals day-to-day performance against established standards?
What is the key to any evaluation process?
determining and evaluating "typical" performance
What document is a periodic formal evaluation of an enlisted member s performance and also serves as an official record of performance?
What is the impact of making accurate ,fair,and honset evaluations?
ensure that the most deserving individual have the best chance for promotion
How does the airforce use the EES as an effective managment tool ?
It allows the AF to manage people an select them for postions of increased resposibility where they can best serve the needs of the AF
What is the purpose of the performance feedback system?
a formal system where raters effectivly communicate responsibilty ,dutyperformance,an expectations to their subordinates.
When is performance feedback conducted?
- -INITIAL FEEDBACK within 60 days of thre rater being assigned
- -MID-PERIOD FEEDBACK completed mid way between the date supervision began an EPR close out date.
- -FOLLOWUP FEEDBACK given within 60 days after the closeout date of the EPR
Which form does a rater use to conduct performance feedback on ratees in the grades of airmanbasic through tech sergeant?
AF form 931 - to conduct performance feedback
What are some of the benifits of using the performance feedback?
provides a sence of direction and help develop motivation in ratees
As a supervisor,when formulating your expectations of the ratee, what 3 questions should you ask yourself?
- -Are my expectations realistic
- -compatible with AF instructions
What is the purpose of the MId-course performance feedback?
provide the ratee a performance progress report and the oppurtunity to improve that performance if needed
Under what circumstances would you NOT perform a follow-up performance feedback?
when the last EPR was prepared as a result of change in rater.
What are some things the rater should consider when scheduling the time and place of a feedback session?
sessions should be scheduled far enough in advanced so both the rater and the ratee have enough time to adequately prepare for the session
What must the rater do before giving the feedback form to the ratee?
sign and date the PFW the day of the session
Who should develop a plan to achieve success during the feedback session?
What is the most important thing to do when closing the feedback session?
schedule the next feedback session
What are the final requirements of the rater in the final steps of the EES(Enlisted Evaluation System) process?
- -prepares comments
- -documents duty performance
- -makes a promotion recommendation
Why must the rater let the ratee know there are certain areas of his or her performance requireing improvement?
it will help increase the productivity of hte ratee and ensure the raters credibility as a supervisor
How does the airforce benifit from supervisors making honset an accurate promotion recommendations?
the right people get promoted and personnel decisions are made easier
Why is it important to describe the level and impact of performance in the comments section of the EPR?
Provides material necessary to the support ratings in the EPR
Who is responsible to know when a ratees EPR is due and when it must be submitted?
Why are there only 2 evaluators for AB through TSGT?
To keep endorsement levels at the lowest possible level and reduce admin burden
Which section of the EPR contains the duty title an duty description of the ratee?
What term is used to refer to an evaluators non-concurence witha rating on a EPR?
What must the evaluator consider when making a promotion recommendation in sectionIV of the EPR?
Ratees perfromance an promotion potential compared with others in the same grade and AFSC
Who must be the endorsing official on the AF form 910?
-the rater's rater provied minimum grade requirments is met
What would cause a EPR(Enlisted Performance Reoport)to become a referral report?
when it contains 1 or more ratings in the far left block of any performance factor or a promotion recommendation of "1"
WHAT are the 5 basic motives that make up individuals behavior?
- physiological motives
- safety motives
- social motives
- self -esteem motives
- self -actualization motives
Where do our values tend to come from?
parents . peers. self
WHAT is the difference between values and personality?
- values- come form feelings we have inside
- personality- formed from patterns, habits,or conditoned responces to various stimuli
the varios force , such as phyiscal,moral , economic, that operate in any field
What are motives?
the needs, wants,drive or impulse from within an individual that directs that person towards some goal
What are values?
values are beliefs that about what does or does nt constitute a worthwhile goal
When are values formed?
whenever we accept an idea ,preceive a relationship, or take a principle for granted
What is the diffenerence between values and opinion?
- opinions -are altered through education,awarness,peer pressure, etc.
- values- will not change unless some strong ,life changing event occurs
as how a person consistently behaves an reacts to people an the environment
WHAT type of behavior might a prdeomintaly ANALYTICAL personality exhibit?
display characteristics of being slow and meticulous in decision making to be sure they have all the facts
What type of behavior would a person who is considered to have a compassiontate personality exhibit?
display characteristics of somone who always takes the time to consider other peoples feelings and points of views.
Define group dynamics?
the differnece on person behavior can have on another individual within the group
What 3 characteristic impact group dynamics?
How do motivies imapact group effectiveness
Your motives are goal-directed. If individuals have different goals the effectivemess of a grouo could be impacted in ever a positive or negative way
What are four common causes of conflict amoung individuals in a group
differnt motives, misunderstanding circumstancesm conflicting prioriteis, and unrealistic goals
What is conflict within a group of good things
conflict can be a positive when it comes to group problem solvong. As individuas seek to impress their opinions and views on other group, the rest of the group must interpret these views.
What is conflict resolution
An attempt to minimize or alleviate disoutes between people
What are some ways to resolve conflict
through advoidance, accomaodation, compromise, force, collaboration, or consensus.
What is avoidance
A passive approach of dealing with conflict, rather then dealing with the situation , a person avoids conflict all together
When would avoidance be an appropriate approach to resolving conflict
1The issuse is trivial 2 there in no chance of statisfying your own concern 3 others can solve the conflict more effectively 4 the damage of confronting outweighs the benefits of resolution
What is accomadation
acoomadation s to provide service or give in to anothers will while sacrficing your own needs for the sake of others
When would accomadation be an appropriate approach to resolving conflict
accomadation is appropriate when 1 the issue is more important to other than it is to you 2 you realize you are wrong 3 you want to build up social credits for later issues or 4 continued competition would only damage the cause
When is compromis an appropriate approach to resolving conflict
compromise is appropriate when 1 goal are moderately important but not worth effore or disrution 2 necessary to arrive at solutions under timer pressure or 3 you want to achieve temporary settlement to a complex issue
What is forcing
forcing is when one or both sides use power threats or formal authority to satisfy need regardless of the impact or feelings of other group memebers
When is forcing an appropriate approach to resolving conflict
it may be ecesaary to use force when 1 quick decisive action is needed 2 unpopular actions are required 3 issues are vital for mission accomplishment
When is collaboration an appropriate approach to resolving conflict
collaboration is appropriate when 1 both sets of concerns are too important to compromise 2 commitiment is necessary or 3 hard feelings that need to be delt with have been interfering with interpersonal relationships
what is consensus
Consensus is agreeing with others in a group a win/win way of reaching closure on an issue and a situation whre all parties discuss an issue until group arrives at a decision
Why is a consensus valuable
because descions made via consensus get more support than other methods of descion making
List helpful hints to keep in mind when trying to reach a group consensus
Avoid arguing, approach the task on the basis of logic and avoid changing your mind, support only decsions with which you are able to agree, view differences of opinion as helpful rather than a hinderance
who feels the effects of group conflict
the individual is affected and so is the groups performance ability
list three affets of group conflict
frustrtion, greater cooperation, or decision may be forced or based on emotions
How would conflict likely affect group dynamics
Idividuals might loose sight of group goals while trying to satisfy their own goals, commitment to group goals would decrease or commitment to group goals would increase because sense of shared commitment and understanding
What is the difference between group and team
teams have a clearly defined objective as opposed to groups which often have just similar intrest or like a temas existense is normaly defined by a predetermined period of time
what is the purpose of a tiger team
Normally formed by senior management to solve an urgent specific problem
What is PAT
Process Action Teams can be formed at any orginizaion level to analyze and improve a targeted process
What is a development team
A team in which members are not nesccarily experts in the area but are tasked to design ne w processes
How is Natura working group different from Tiger Team, PAT or Development Team
The process to be improved is owned an operated by members of the group
What are the task needs of a team
Task needs deak with what it takes to get the job done
Much of the interaction present within a team is caused by which need of a team
What are maintenance needs
behaviors necessary to strengthen and maintain the team
What are four stages of team development
Forming, storming, nooning, and performing
What are some of the feelings associated with the forming stage
Anxiety and fear of the chalenage to come, tentative attachment to the team, excitement anticipaion, and pride in being part of the team
What behaviors would you expect to see during the forming stage
Tema members asking a lot of questions, expressing doubts about their ability, trying to get to know other team members, expressing excitement about being team members . expressing anxiousness
What needs will a team have during the forming stage
individual needs, maintenance
What are a few issues that must be addreses during the forming stage
the team need to get to know each other, the task at hand needs to be defined, the team has to decid how the task will be accomplished, how to deal with any problems that asrise, leader must decide on if not formally selected and the team will need to establish team members roles such as recorder timekeeper and so on
WHAT are some feelings associated with the storming stage?
Associated with the storming stage,what behaviors can you expect during this stage?
team members may realize the task is more comlicated than they orignally perceievd, resist collaborating with the team and try to over zealously assert their own opinoins and knowledge,, become impatient
What might be some important maintenace functions that must be addressed during the storming stage?
how much influence they will have on the team and on who they will allow to influence them
What benefits can the team gain from working through the storming stage?
-team members begin to understand each other
What are some signs that a team has reached the NORMING STAGE?
- Team starts to make progress towards its goal an accomplish something.
- -group cohesion is evident
- -functional relationships are developed among memebers
- -there is a recognition of others contribution
How does a team operate in the performing stage?
- Team members work together in constructive ways
- -offers assistance to others an recognize the skills of others
- -majority of the teams efforts are directed towards task completion.
- -decision making is effictive
Once a team has reached the performing stage , is the team development work complete?
NO..teams can slip back into any one of the previous stages for any number of reason
What are some reasons a team might move from the performing stage back to one of the earlier stages of team development?
- the team may go back to the NORMAL stage whe a new member is added to the team
- - if a new task is assigned,then a team might slip back into the STORMING stage.
How does group dynamics affect the team during the FORMING stage?
if a persons know each other and are warm and freindly , the forming may happen quickly, if persons are strangers, the forming may be a long process
How do group dynamics impact the STORMING stage of team development?
Group the consist of strong willed, the storming stage will probabl be more difficult to get through than it would be if the group consisted of more passive, agreeable type persons
How do group dynamics impact the NORMING stage of team development?
The norming stage is driven by what happend in the forming an storming stages.
How do group dynamics impact the performing stage of team development
The smoothness of the performing stage will depend on how well the different forces involved have fit together up to this point.
What does the process owner do for the team
selects the team leader as wel as the team members, supports the team and its efforts toward completing its goal and selects an advisor or facilitator for the team
What are the responsibilities of the team leader
the person who manages the team gives direction and guidance, resolves internal group problems, encourages participation and keeps the process owner up to date
What might some of the conseqeunces of a leader being inder directive or over directive
under directive leader a lack of direction will cause team members to floumder, become frustrated and give up, the leader will lose trust and confidence of team members. Over directive the team may become so depedent on the direction of the leader that they never learn to function on its own and team members may respond with anger
What is the purpose of facilitator
functions as a coach and moderator for a group, team, or organization, focuses on the process while the team leader focuses on the content of the improvement
What does a facilitator do?
focuses on the team energy toward meeting its goals provides guidance to the team but does not provide direction, focuses on how descions are mande within the team
What are some characteristics of an effective team member
the ability to think creatively a willingness to contribute to group efforts an ability to put the good of the team ahead of personal goals a willingness to compromise when needed
What is the team member responsible for
Providing accurate info, working toward building an enviroment where members work together in harmony and being both assertive and creative
Why is it so important that every team member understand his or her role
the team can effectively accomplish its mission
What is the steps in our 6 step problem solving model
- 1Recognize the problem
- 2 gather data
- 3 list possible solutions
- 4 test possible solitions
- 5 how much is the solution going to cost in terms of time money or people
- 6 Choosing the solution your boss wants
List at least three elements of a problem
An individual an obtacle and a goal
How can be you be sure you have correctly indentified the problem and not the symptoms
By first identifying the three elements of a problem the individual the obstacle and the goal
How do you generate possible solutions
creative thinking and brainstorming
where are three sources from which you can draw a possible solution to the problem
expierencem ability to think logically and your ability to think creatively
What are some principle barriers to creativity you must overcome
habit fear ineria prejudice
What are four rules you should follow when brainstorming possible solutions to a problem
withhold judgement encourage freewheeling ideas aim for quality hitchhike (piggyback) ideas
How can we test our solutions
we do that by applying our criteria and standards to each possible solution
What three criteria should we use for selecting the best solution
feasibility suitability acceptability
What are you look for under the criteria of suitability
are resources tangible and intagible needed to implement he solution available or will you be able to get them in time
What are you looking for under the criteria of acceptability
will the soltion solve the problem the solution msut not only allow you to achieve the goal but it must also meet the standards you develop in step 2
What happens during step 5 select the best solutoin
select the best solution
what happens during step 6
implement and follow up
WHy is it important to follow a systematic approach to problem solvong
it allows you the supervisor to review possible solutions and choose the best solution for whatever your problem may be
Define the principle of orginization in a bureaucracy
is a rational systematic and precise form or organization in which rules regulations and technequies of contrl are precisley defined
What is organizational structure of the Air Force designed to do
To exploit aerospace power versatility and felxibility you ensure the aerospace forces remain responsive survivable and sustainable
the extent to which authority is passed down to lower levels in an orginization
what cultural element in the AF will enable the AF to envolve from an AF to an air and space force on its path toward space
As a leader what can result from you treating people with dignity and fairness
retention and recruitment
What is the definition of leadership as it applies to you as a leader in the AF
leadership is the art of influencing and directing people to accomplish the mission
to become an effective leader what two fundamental concepts must you always consider
the mission and the people
the capacity to follow a leader or one in the service of another one that follows the opinions or teachings of another
List the key attributes of followership
Willingness service and acceptance of authority
What are the sources of a leaders postional influence
Duty, title rank and job
What is an example of a leader appropriately using his or her influence
acknowledge a job well done with verbal praise an LOA or medal
Explain how the effective use of followership traits promotes mission accomplishment
it ensures greater cooperation between boss and subordinates, it bukds great trust respect between boss and subordinates it fosters team work in the work center and allows input to improve work center process
Describe the relationship between leadership and follower ship
leaders and follwers are dependent upon one another leadership is the art of influencing and directing other people to accomplish the mission followership is the the willingness to serve and accept the authority of another being the leader
Which leadership style according to the leadership continuum provides most of the authority to group members instead of the leaders
What type of supervisor delegate responsibility to followers and empowers them to perform tasks
describe situational leadership
the leaders behavior must be based on a diagnosis of the developmental level of subordinates and other situational factors
define five management skills that an effective supervisor can use to get the job done
- Technical skills-involves methods process procedures or techniques
- Interpersonal- the ability to work effectively within a team
- conceptual skill-ability to see the orginization as a whole or see the "big picture"
- Diagnostic skills-supervisors ability to investigate problems, determine best solution and implement solution
- Political skill- acquistion of power and connections necessary within an orginization to reach goals and objectives
What management skills should be regarded as a supplement to job competence and other basic skills
What management skill involves an understanding of a proficency in a specific activity that involves methods process procedures and techiques
What follower behavior best illustrates a combination of confidence and motivation
Name the skill combination upon which a followers development level is based
competence and commitment
In what style of leadership are problem solving and descion making done soley by the supervisor
What style of leadership are followers giving the responsibility to carryout descions both the supervisor and follower have agreed on
what is the primary behavor of supervisors when they are using supporting or delegating styles of leadership
which situational variables requires constant observation and is often very structured in an effort to ensure mission accomplishment
What is the AF policy on MEO (military equal oppurtunity)
AF will conduct its affairs free from unlawfull discrimination and sexal harrasement
Name two forms of unlawful discrimination and define there use
- individual discrimination accures when an action is taking by an individual to deprive a person or group of a right because of color race sex ext...
- organizational descrimination may be an action by institution through its policies and procedures
What is the AF definition of sexual harrasement
a form of sex descrimination that involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for seual behaviors and other verbal or physial conduct of a sexual nature
What is the AF policy on sexual harrasement
there is no tolerence for unlawful discrimination or harrassment of any sort within the AF
What AFI does discusses dissident and protest activites
What AF members who engage in the efforts to deprive individuals of there civil rights are punishable under which article
What can you do to prevent MEO problems
Establish the proper atmosphere in your duty section, clear polocies support and attend special observences and allow your subordnece to do the same
What is the supervisors role in the MEO
activities which impact the profresional enviroment includes preventing MEO problems and identifying them
What are some measures a supervisor can take to correct inappropriate MEO problems
Advise the offensive person to stop immediatly if the offender is your supervisor report it to the next level or encourage the recipient to do the same act promptly and take corrective action if you supervise the offense
Drug use substance abuse AFI
How substance abuse impacts the unit
decrease in moral discipline degrades unit productivity
What are the objectives of the ADAPT (alcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatment program) program
- 1 promote readiness and health and wellness through prevention and treatment of SA
- 2 minimize the negative consiquences of SA on the individual and family members
- 3 provide comprehensive education and treatment to individuals
- 4 return identified substance abusers to unrestricted duty status
What is the supervisors role in preventing substance abuse
help subordinance adjust to the enviroment and observing and counseling and correcting subordinates
What is the primary responsibility of the supervisor during subordinate rehabilitation
the primary responsibilities of the supervisor during subordinate rehabilationare to monitor the progress of the individual help reduce the sigma associated with substance abuse and coordinate all efforts with the life skills office
What are some questions a supervisor can ask himself or herself when establishing standards
Do I have the authority to establish this standard does the standard address quanity auality and timelines can the individual meet the standard measurable
What is the supervisors main role in maintaining standards through discipline
to help develop subordinate self control to do what is right all the time every time an which in turn will give you a means to measure progress and correct violations if required
What 2 methods of discpline are placed at the supervisors disposal to ensure proper discpline and standards
prevention and correction
According to API 36-2618 The Enlisted Force Structure what are some supervisor responsibilities in maintaining discipline
NCO's carry out orders of those appointed over them by virtue of the authority vested in rank . effectively employing personel, material, equipment and other resources under there cintrol
What measures can a supervisor use to maintain good discipline
prevenitive correctove and punitive measure
What 2 ways can a supervisor accomplish corrective counseling
verbal and written
What is non0judical punishment and who is authorized to impose it
one of the commanders most valuable toold for maintaing morale discipline and efficency, An artice 15 is not punishment but corrective nature
What are the 5 types of DCA (disciplinary corrective actions)
Counseling, admonition, reprimand, unfavorable info, control roster
What types of info can be placed in an Unfavorable Info file
Mandatory items such as records of non judical punishment when there is any period of suspension or when the punishment period is in excess of one month a record conviction by a civilian court, penalty of confinment or more then one year or death, records of court martial convictions, evidece of repeated failure to support dependents, information pertaining to alchol
When requirement for a record or LOC or LOA or required reprimand has been established what item should be included.
that the member did or failed to do citing specific incidnets and their dates
What steps need ro be accomplished if the service member refuses to sign a letter of admonishment or repromand
Annorate the letter "member refused to acknowledge" sign and date. To ensure there is no problen in thisregar, LOA/LOR should be served in the presence of a witness
The autority to etablish UTF's and control rosters rests soley with whom
Define AF policy on professional relationship
are those that contributes to the effective operation of the AF
How do unproffesional relationships affect the work enviroment
negatively impact morale and discipline
Which memembers in the personal relationship bears the primary responsibility for maintaining the professionalism of the relationship
the senior member
What is mentorship
a relationship in which a person of greater expierence and wisdom helps guide the professional development of a more junior person
Name some qualities of a good mentor that supports subordinate development
sociability dominance oppenness communicator and counseler
What are some symptoms or signs of stress
some of the psychological signs of stress are confusion depression and mood changes
Give some examples of positive and negative stress?
positive include testing for promotion the birth of a child a move to a better apartment changing to a better daycare center. negative stress include death of a close realitive, stationed at a base you dont like
What are the 3 areas in which the supervisor has a role in stress management?
- assistance an counseling
What supervisory role in managment allows the supervisor to intervene proir to discipline problem?
Assisting and counseling
What is time management?
Self-managment is using time wisley an effectively, setting clear priorities
What are the critical attributes of time management?
goals and objectives
What is diversity?
the fact or quality of being diverse,different
Name some factors that create diversity?
language,age, gender, cultural backround behaviors etc.
What barriers prevent the process of diversity from happening?
Prejudice, stereotyping, unlawful disrimination
Which barrier entail cooperating with others, knowingly or unknowinlgy, to reinforce stereotypical atttitudes,prevailing behavior and norms?
Why is diveristy in the workplace important?
promotes a healthy work environment
What is the best measure of a workers performance?
the results of the work being done
What do you do if s worker is not meeting the standards?
- it could be an ability problem or a willingness problem.
- Ability=provide more trainging or modify the standard
- willingness= time for corrective counseling
In simple terms, how do you assess a workers performance?
compare your observations of the worker with the standards that you initially established with the worker.
What is the difference between subectivity an objectivity?
- Subjectivity= involves personal bias or opinion
- objectivity= involves only the facts
As an evaluator, should your observations be subjective or objective?
You should be as objective as possible, but keep in mind thatsometimes subjectivity is needed
actions taken to report on a subordinates performance or behavior,eitherin writing or verbally.
What is the purpose of reporting?
provides feedback to the worker on behavior or the results of efforts
Why is evaulating an reporting important?
helps those who work with us to improve themselves ans be more successful.
For an evaluation to be effective,what 3 principles must you follow?
- establish clear standards
What makes a good clear standard?
you must have the authority to establish the standard. the standard must address quality,quantity and or timelines
What is the second princple of evaluation, and what does it envolve?
OBSERVATION.....must form the basis of evaluations an include direct observation of the workers behavior or performance
List 3 ways observation can be done?
- others observation
- looking at comlpeted work
If you are unable to personally observe the performance of a worker, what are your options to fulfill the requirenment for observation?
- observation of trusted peers
- observation of the completed work or product
- talk to customers who were provided the service
As the evaluator, what are you doing during the measurment principle of evaluation?
You take the observations and measure them against the standards
How are evaluations used?
to idnetify when a worker is meeting or exceeding a standard or if a worker is not meeting the standard
List possible pitfalls evaluators need to avoid?
resistance to evalutations,one-way communication,closed-mindedness,and the avoidance of self-evaluations
Why do some people resist being an evaluator or evaluating other people?
they may not clearly understand what needs to be done or know what is expected
What 3 things can you do to avoid being close-minded when conducting evaluations?
- compare the performance against the standard
- ensure you evaluate each factor seperately
- evaluate using current and relevant information
What are 2 principles of reporting?
informal and formal
What is informal reporting?
letting workers know how well they did in relation to the standard, can be done by an informal feedback session or just a simple pat on the back
What is the purpose of formal reporting?
let workers know how they met (or did not ) meet the standard
List ways reports can be useful?
let workers know where they stand, formally or informally provides a record of performance, provides a concrete basis for both worker and supervisor decisions, when workers are meeting or exceeding the standards, reports can motivate
List 4 pitfalls to avoid when reporting?
- positive or negative anticipation
- one-way communication
- abstract reports
- reports without data
What are the 2 main objectives of the PMP(Performance Management Process)?
to provide performance feedback to subordinates and to provide a longterm record of subordinates performance
Why is it important to know your subordinates?
its the basis upon which you base the decisions you make , the procedures you institute and the evalutaions you perform.
List 3 reasons why you should take the time to become acquanted with those you who work for you.?
- 1-to match personal interst with jobs
- 2-predict subordinates responses to planned changes
- 3- increase the flow of subordinate suggestions
- 4- to have a basis for influence group members
- 5- have a basis for personal feedback
In what ways can the principles of PMP be used by you as a supervisor?
With the EES, decisions such as who is nominated for awards and decorations, who is given additional responsibilities, who will or will not be recommended for reenlistment, who will not be given compensatory time off are all applicable to PMP
What is step 1 of the PMP(Performance Management Process)?
develop performance expectations
What is the purpose behind the development of performance expectations?
they provide both the supervisor and the subordinate witha complete description of the subordinates specific duties and explain what duties are to be performed
When developing performance expectations, why would it be helpful to use the job descriptin and specific standards?
job descriptions provide a word picture describing specifc duties to be performed in a given job/duty position
One limitation of the job description is that its activities-oriented rather then results oriented? what does this mean ?
That the job description typically details what an employee does rather than the results to be achieved
What can be another disadvantage of the job description?
workers may see the job description as defining the limits of their job and refuse to do anything not specifically listed in the duties
What are the attributes of good,clear performance standard?
will address quality , and or timeliness, will be attainable and will be measurable
Describe step 2 of the PMP ( Performance Management Process)?
involves monitoring performance progress. Monitoring performance progress is purposeful observation over a period of time long enough to ensure a thorough look at a typical perfomance
When monitoring performance progress describe the 3 areas you should pay close attention too?
- 2-methods and procedures
- 3-work habits
List 3 things you can do when monitoring performance that will help you to be more effective?
- 1-make notes about behaviors and their impact
- 2-collect examples of work
- 3-monitor perfomance on a regular basis
Step 3 of the Performance Management Process(PMP)?
to evaluate indiviual performance . evaluation is the act of measuring observed behavior
What are some pitflls to avoid when evaluating an individuals performance?
- personal bias/general impressions
Discuss ratability as a pitfall when evalutaing an individuals performance?
can become a pitfall when an evaluator attempts to evaluate factors that are essentially not ratable
How does relavance affect an indivduals performance?
essential elements of the job are omitted from consideration(deficiency),when undue weight is given to a particular incident( distortion), when the factors are included that do not contribute to a performance(contamination)
Describe how variability is a pitfall when evaluating an individuals performance?
when evaluations of a group of indivuals does not show appropriate differnces in individual performance
define evaluator leniency?
When evaluators tend to give high ratings and are reluctant to give low ratings
Define the term evaluator strictness?
evaluators standards are unreasonbly high
Define the term central tendacy?
when evaluators rate everyone as average
DEFINE the term Halo effect?
when one factor or characteristic of a worker influences the evaluation of other factors
Discuss personal bias/general impressions as a pitfall when evalutingan individual s performance?
where an evalutator allows his or her personal feelings or general impressions of the individual being rated to inluence the evaluation.
Why is regency as a pitfall when as a pitfall when evaluating an individuals performance?
- This can occur when the evalusation is disproportionately
- affected by recent performance or events
Briefly dicsuss logic as a pitfall when evalutating an individuals performance?
this occurs if and when n evaluator gives similiar ratings to traits that do not go together
What is the main focus to step 4?
providing relevant and credible feedback to subordinates after conducting performance evaluations
How can you ensure you conduct a valid and objective evalutation of your subordinates?
always compare performance against a predeterined performance standard
What is the purpose of feedback?
to provide info to a subordinate for the purpose of maintaining or improving performance,both on and off duty
A succesful feedback,must meet what 3 criteria?
- the reciever must be able to understand the feedback
- the receiver must accept the feedback
- the receiver must be able to do something with the feedback
What is the difference between formanl and informal feedback?
formal feedback-feedback provided as part of a formalized system or program.within the AF ,the mandatory feedback given as a part of the EnlistedEvaluationSystem(EES) is an example of formal feedback . Informal feedback is provided at times other than those required by a formalized system
What are a few strategies you can employ to help improve the subordinate?
build on the employees strengths,accentuate their likes, an attempt to relate to their personal goals
What are 3 things that may help to improve subordinate performance overall?
- improve the employee
- improve the job
- improve the situation
What are the 2 purposes of counseling?
to promote a change in behavior an to reinforce existing behavior
active communication process where the supervisor responds to the follower to either promote a change in behavior or reinforce present behavior
What 4 aspects of the communication process are involved during counseling?
In what ways can counseling help the follower?
the improved ability to cope with problems, increased ability to make decisions,improved relationship with the leader, and personal growth an development
Why is honesty so important in the helping relationships?
it creates and reinforces trust, and builds credibilty
Why is mutual respect important in the counseling proccess?
Mutual respect keeps the lines of communication open and helps both parties maintain objectivity.
What four factor are critical to the success of a helping relationship or the counseling process?
- Mutual respect
- Openness to feedback
What can you do to help maintain consistency with your followers?
Being involved in their daily activities.
Effective receiver skills include what four attributes?
What are attending skills?
Skills that involve paying attention and focousing your full attention on the counselee
What is meant by observing as an effective reciever skill?
Observing means watching the counselee paying attention to both the verbal and non verbal messages.
What part of listening focouses on whats being said and how its said?
content and feeling
What is meant by acceptance?
It is remaining objective as you listen to what the counselee is telling you.
The activities associated with a counseling session can be grouped into what three stages?
- Pre-counseling activities
- conducting the counseling session
- concluding the session
What is the first step in preparing for the counselinh situation?
To determine the techinique you'll use: counselor-centered, counselee-centered, or combined
What is the main purpose for the counselor-centered technique?
To let the counselee know what they need to do.
Who is responsible for the success of the solution when using the counselor-centered technique?
You as the supervisor/counseler
You, as the supervisor, have determined a problem exists. You decided to use the counseler-centered technique. What should you do next?
Determine the best solutions for the problem and how the counselee will implement the solution
What is your role as the supervisor/counselor during councelee-entered counseling session?
The primary role of the counselor in this situation is to serve as a "listening post" or sounding board so the counselee can hear his or her ideas.
When using the counselee-centered approach who is responsible for successfully solving the problem?
The counselee-centered approach techiquw puts the responsibiitiy for solving problem on the counselee
How does the counselee-centered approach begin?
The counselee has determined a problem exists and has probraly developed some potential solutions to the problem.
What is the primary role of the counseler when using combined technique?
To help the counselee by providing the information he or she needs to make an informed choice.
When using the combined approach who is responsible for succesfully solving the problem?
The counseler and counselee share the responsibility for the sessions success
What should you do in preperation for a counseling session?
When planning for a counseling session, determine the purpose and objective. Analyze the audience (the counselee). Organize your ideas and goals and have a plan for achieving them. Fianlly gather suppoer.
What two steps are involved in prepering the counseling enviroment?
Being physically prepared and being mentally prepared?
When opening your counseling session what two things can you do to help the session be productive?
Establish rapport and identify the objective of your time together?
What are a few thing you can do to help establish rapport with the counselee at the begining of the counseling session?
When the counselee meets with you greet him or her by name shake hands and offer some refreshment. opwn the conversation by asking non threatining neautral questions to "break the ice" Replace feelings of fear and tension with trust and warmth
If you initiaited the counseling session how might you tell the counselee the objective of the counseling session?
"I've asked to speak to you about..."
If the counselee initiated the counseling session how might you encourage the counselee to state the objective of the counseling session?
You could ask the counselee " What did you need to see me about"
What are you trying to do during the counseling sesion?
The goal in this stage of the session is to develop a plan of action or to reach a decision about the problem. Once the goal has been achieve or when the session becomes unproductve, its time to close it out.
Closing the session involves what two actions?
- Reviewing the sesion
- Scheduling the next step if the issue was not resolved
What is the purpose of reviewing or summarizing the counseling session
Summeries help ensure your counselee leaves the session with positive feeling and a belief they learned sometthing about their problem
What very important step takes place after the counseling session is finsihed and the counselee has left?
document the session
When should you document a counseling session?
after the session when it is fresh in your head. Use a local form or a LOC for you document info
How do you determine whether your counseling sessions have been effective?
By taking follow-up actions which involve through investigation to find out if your counselee are progressing toward resolvinh their problems.
What are some of the things that can limit your effectiveness as a counseler?
Time, enviroment, privacy, personality conflict with the counselee, lack of helping relationship,poor counseling ability and poor communication skills
How can a lack of confidentiality affect the counseling process?
by lessingin the interaction since followers will feel they have no right to privacy, they may delibertly conceal important info later
What is the importance of referral agencies?
You can't always help every one solve every problem. Referral agencies ensure the person gets the help you can't give them.
What are some common base level referral agencies you can use?
- Legal office
- Area defense counsel
- Human Resource advisor