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In England, one could change classes by ________. London had no monopoly in the 18th century because of othejr important cities. The trade center of the Netherlands was __________. The nobles of the Netherlands were mostly in the ___________.
- Owning land
- East and South
Where were the urban populations in Europe in the 18th century?
Northern Italy, Netherlands, Britain.
There was no absolutism in the Netherlands, but __________ was often in control.
The House of Orange.
What was the leader of each of the United Provinces called?
Name some Dutch philosophers and artists.
- Philosophers: Grotius, Spinoza, Leeuwenhoeck
- Artists: Frans Hals (sold to the working class) Vermeer (depicted middle class and dealt art), Rembrandt (used muted colors)
The dutch had a monopoly on shipping in the 17th century. What establishments were made to ship from France, England, Spain, the Baltic, and other places. What places did these organizations discover?
The East India Company came first and it discovered Batavia (now Jakarta) in Indonesia. They had access to Japan via Nagasaki. When they settled New Amsterdam, they set up the West India Company which colonized Curacao, Guiana, and parts of Brazil. They also took the Cape of Good Hope from Portugal.
What major bank was founded in the Netherlands? What was the name of its currency?
- The Bank of Amsterdam
- Gold florins which became an international currency
Explain the system in the United Provinces and how the stadtholder factored in.
Representatives from each province went to the estates-general, and they all had a stadtholder. In times of need they picked one unified stadtholder.
Who were the Bergers?
They domintated politics and economy in the Netherlands until 1649 when the House of Orange took control.
What were the navigation acts?
England was jelly of the Dutch trade so they said that anything coming to england must be shipped on that country's ships or England's ships.
In 1672 Louis attacked the Netherlands and occupied 3 of 7 provinces. What did they do?
They made William III of Orange the Stadtholder, and they made the position hereditary. Then they allied with Brandenburg against France, but Louis still "won" because even though there was a peace agreement the Dutch never did much in Europe after this.
How did the Polish king come to power? What was the ethnicity of the population?
- He was elected
- They were Germans and Jews in the cities and nobles in the countries. The language was latin, and the nobility was Roman Catholic.
Describe the Polish government.
The king was often a powerless foreigner because aristocrats couldn't agree on a Pole. The aristocrats had diets, but the central diet needed a unanimous decision which rarely occurred. The king had no courts or income, and the nobles paid no taxes. As a result Russia and Prussia gained power while Poland derped. Hard.
In the treaty of Westphalia, the Holy Roman Empire got screwed because their states got soverignty and the Spanish Hapsburgs lost money and territory. So they concentrated on their ancestral lands by doing what?
They fought the Ottoman Turks, and in 1683 they sieged Vienna.
When the HRE sieged Vienna, King of Poland _______ went to ___________ for help. He also got help from _________. They ended up taking over _______.
- John Sobieski
- Eugene of Savoy
- The Spanish Netherlands
What ruled did Charles VI of HRE institute to secure a place for his successor?
Pragmatic Sanction said that she could be the queen. He got everyone to agree.
____________ was the king of Prussia. He had very scattered territory, so he built up a big army and sided with __________ and _______ against __________ and _________.
- Frederick William Great Elector
- France and Sweden
- Hapsburgs and Poland
How did Frederick III of Prussia become Frederick I King of Prussia?
He bargained witht teh Hapsburgs in the war of Spanish Succession (he helped them out).
In Prussia, they had money from their lands and they were very frugal. They didn't have enough people, so they got more skilled workers by ___________. The _________ (aristocrats) were loyal to the king and they could do whatever they wanted with their serfs.
King Frederick William I of Prussia did what with the army?
He doubled that motha in size
What problems did Ivan the Terrible have (other than his beard)
He had issues with the Mongols from the East who dominated territory in Russia. He was thrown out by the Duke of Muscany in the 1584.
What problems did Peter the Great have when he came to the throne?
Russia had no warm water ports, and before his rule there was the time of trouble when nobles couldn't agree on which czar to put on the throne. There were mistranslations in the bible which were fixed, but the Old Believers said no way jose. Ivan was the co-tzar, and Sophia was the regent, but Peter got rid of them.
How were Russia and Prussia similar?
They were autocratic, and they had undefined frontiers. They had state supported armies, and they lacked a native working class. Prussia, however, was more European.
What happened in the Great Northern War?
Peter the Great allied with Denmark and Poland against Sweden. King Charles XII of Sweden was a great leader who defeated Denmark first, and then the Russians at Narva. He went onto the Polish, but the Russians had time to reorganize, and they won at Poltava.
Peter the great founded ___________ as a major port city, and after the Great Northern War he got ____________. Peter brought in people to help the economy and he boosted commercialism. When he picked his wife as his successor, he messed up the rules and made things chaotic.
- St. Petersburg
- land in the South Baltic and Finland