Lipids

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Author:
mm.engalla
ID:
117685
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Lipids
Updated:
2011-11-18 01:46:12
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Chapter3
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Nutrition
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  1. Lipids
    • The chemical group name for organic substances of a
    • fatty nature, The lipids include fats, oils, waxes, and other fat related compounds such as cholesterol.
  2. Glycerides
    • Chemical group name for fats, from their base
    • substance glycerol; formed from the glycerol base with one, two or three fatty acids
  3. Triglyceride
    • Chemical name for fats in the body or in
    • food; compound of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol base
  4. Fatty Acids
    The major structural components of fats
  5. Saturated
    State of being filled. State of fatty acid components of fat being filled in all their available carbon bonds with hydrogen
  6. Linoleic acid
    essential fatty acid constisiting of 18 carbons and two double bonds. Found in vegetable oils.
  7. Linolenic acid
    Essential fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms and three double bonds found in soybean, canola and flaxseed oil
  8. Lipoprotein–
    Chemical complex of fat and protein that serve as the major carriers of lipids in the plasma.
  9. Cholesterol
    A fat related compound, a sterol, synthesized in animal tissue
  10. Classes of Fats
    • Dietary importance- Fat is our insulation.
    • Fat is a storage form of concentrated fuel. Can be solid or liquid, not soluble in water and are greasy

    Lipids another word for fat. Lipos is the Greek word for fat

    • Triglycerides- made up of carbon, hydrogen
    • and oxygen. Called glycerides because made up of glycerol with fatty acid attached. Most have three fatty
    • acids attached so they are called triglyceride.

    TRYGLYCERIDE = CHEMICAL NAME FOR FAT
  11. Fatty Acids
    Main building blocks of fat are fatty acids

    • -Classified by chain length as short, medium
    • or long.

    • -Saturated fatty acid- saturated, contains
    • all the hydrogen that it can hold,
    • heavier denser, more solid-animal in origin, eggs, dairy and meat

    • Unsaturated fatty acid – Not fully saturated,
    • olives, olive oil, peanut oil, avocados, two or more double bonds in the carbon chain are called polyunsaturated – most fatty acids in plants are unsaturated
  12. Lipoproteins
    • -Combinations of fats, protein and other fat
    • related substances, which are the major vehicle for transport in the blood stream

    • -Fat is insoluble in water and blood, It needs
    • a carrier to get around.

    -Amount of fat and protein determines its density. The higher the protein the more density it has.

    • -(LDL) Low density Lipoprotein – Carry fat and
    • cholesterol to the cells

    -(HDL) High density Lipoprotein – Carry free cholesterol from body tissue to the liver for breakdown and excretion
  13. Cholesterol
    Many people confuse cholesterol with saturated fat

    Cholesterol belongs to a group of chemical substances called sterols. It is not a fat.

    No cholesterol in plants only in animal tissue

    Cholesterol is synthesized by the body in the liver

    Egg yolks, organ meats, like liver or kidney

    Link between cholesterol intake and coronary heart disease
  14. Functions of Fats
    • Energy- Fats serve as fuel for energy
    • Also is an important storage form of body fuel
    • Essential nutrients
    • Supplies the body with essential fatty acids

    • Flavor and satisfaction
    • Makes you feel satiety or satisfaction with meal

    • Fat substitutes
    • NutraSweet, Chicago, IL Simplesse
    • Olestra, Cincinnati, OH
  15. Adipose Tissue
    Tissue in the body which gives us padding, tissue support, protects vital organs, and insulation
  16. Cell membrane structure
    • Helps carry nutrient material across cell
    • membrane
  17. Food Sources of Fat
    • Animal fats – Lean red meat
    • Plant fats – safflower oil, corn , cottonseed, soybean, peanuts, olives
    • Hydrogenated fats- Margarine, shortenings
  18. Bile
    A fluid secreted by the liver and transported to the gallbladder for concentration and storage

    -Bile is not an enzyme it is an emulsifier

    -It gets the fat ready for digestion

    -Bile breaks the fat into smaller pieces

    -This increases the surface area that the enzymes can work on

    -Lowers the surface tension allowing the enzymes to penetrate more easily

    -Bile also provides a alkaline medium necessary for the action of the fat enzyme pancreatic lipase
  19. Emulsifier
    An agent that breaks down large fat globules into smaller particles
  20. Miscelles
    Packages of free fatty acids, monoglycerides and bile salts
  21. Chylomicron
    Lipoprotien formed in the intestinal cell composed of triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids and protein
  22. Digestion of Fats
    Mouth – Lingual lipase is secreted by Ebner’s glands in the back of the tongue

    Stomach – Not much digestion in stomach

    Small intestine- Fat digestion occurs primarily in small intestines –

    • Cholecystokinin a hormone is secreted in duodenum which causes the gallbladder to contract and
    • bile is put into common bile duct and then moves in to the duodenum
  23. Dietary Fat Requirements
    Dietary Reference Intakes

    • 20% -35 % of total Kcal
    • 10% should be saturated

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