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- The chemical group name for organic substances of a
- fatty nature, The lipids include fats, oils, waxes, and other fat related compounds such as cholesterol.
- Chemical group name for fats, from their base
- substance glycerol; formed from the glycerol base with one, two or three fatty acids
- Chemical name for fats in the body or in
- food; compound of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol base
The major structural components of fats
State of being filled. State of fatty acid components of fat being filled in all their available carbon bonds with hydrogen
essential fatty acid constisiting of 18 carbons and two double bonds. Found in vegetable oils.
Essential fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms and three double bonds found in soybean, canola and flaxseed oil
Chemical complex of fat and protein that serve as the major carriers of lipids in the plasma.
A fat related compound, a sterol, synthesized in animal tissue
Classes of Fats
Lipids another word for fat. Lipos is the Greek word for fat
- Dietary importance- Fat is our insulation.
- Fat is a storage form of concentrated fuel. Can be solid or liquid, not soluble in water and are greasy
TRYGLYCERIDE = CHEMICAL NAME FOR FAT
- Triglycerides- made up of carbon, hydrogen
- and oxygen. Called glycerides because made up of glycerol with fatty acid attached. Most have three fatty
- acids attached so they are called triglyceride.
Main building blocks of fat are fatty acids
- -Classified by chain length as short, medium
- or long.
- -Saturated fatty acid- saturated, contains
- all the hydrogen that it can hold,
- heavier denser, more solid-animal in origin, eggs, dairy and meat
- Unsaturated fatty acid – Not fully saturated,
- olives, olive oil, peanut oil, avocados, two or more double bonds in the carbon chain are called polyunsaturated – most fatty acids in plants are unsaturated
- -Combinations of fats, protein and other fat
- related substances, which are the major vehicle for transport in the blood stream
- -Fat is insoluble in water and blood, It needs
- a carrier to get around.
-Amount of fat and protein determines its density. The higher the protein the more density it has.
-(HDL) High density Lipoprotein
- -(LDL) Low density Lipoprotein – Carry fat and
- cholesterol to the cells
– Carry free cholesterol from body tissue to the liver for breakdown and excretion
Many people confuse cholesterol with saturated fat
Cholesterol belongs to a group of chemical substances called sterols. It is not a fat.
No cholesterol in plants only in animal tissue
Cholesterol is synthesized by the body in the liver
Egg yolks, organ meats, like liver or kidney
Link between cholesterol intake and coronary heart disease
Functions of Fats
- Energy- Fats serve as fuel for energy
- Also is an important storage form of body fuel
- Essential nutrients
- Supplies the body with essential fatty acids
- Flavor and satisfaction
- Makes you feel satiety or satisfaction with meal
- Fat substitutes
- NutraSweet, Chicago, IL Simplesse
- Olestra, Cincinnati, OH
Tissue in the body which gives us padding, tissue support, protects vital organs, and insulation
Cell membrane structure
- Helps carry nutrient material across cell
Food Sources of Fat
- Animal fats – Lean red meat
- Plant fats – safflower oil, corn , cottonseed, soybean, peanuts, olives
- Hydrogenated fats- Margarine, shortenings
A fluid secreted by the liver and transported to the gallbladder for concentration and storage
-Bile is not an enzyme it is an emulsifier
-It gets the fat ready for digestion
-Bile breaks the fat into smaller pieces
-This increases the surface area that the enzymes can work on
-Lowers the surface tension allowing the enzymes to penetrate more easily
-Bile also provides a alkaline medium necessary for the action of the fat enzyme pancreatic lipase
An agent that breaks down large fat globules into smaller particles
Packages of free fatty acids, monoglycerides and bile salts
Lipoprotien formed in the intestinal cell composed of triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids and protein
Digestion of Fats
– Lingual lipase is secreted by Ebner’s glands in the back of the tongue
– Not much digestion in stomach
Fat digestion occurs primarily in small intestines –
- Cholecystokinin a hormone is secreted in duodenum which causes the gallbladder to contract and
- bile is put into common bile duct and then moves in to the duodenum
Dietary Fat Requirements
Dietary Reference Intakes
- 20% -35 % of total Kcal
- 10% should be saturated
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