biol 223

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nadiaessaqi
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117689
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biol 223
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2011-11-22 14:55:46
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biol 223 csn brain chapter 14
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brain
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  1. what are the names given to the folds and grooves on the surface of the cerebral cortex?
    grooves are sulcus and folds are gyro
  2. major components of brain
  3. list 3 meningeal layers in order
    • 1)dura mater
    • 2)archoid matrer 3)pia mater
  4. what type of tissue would each be composed of for the meningeal layers?
    1)dura mater-dense irregular fiberious tissue 2archoid mater colllage and elastic fibers 3)pia mater fiberious filaments
  5. where would u find the endosteal layer of the dura mater?
    top
  6. whats the purpose of the dural sinus?
    returns blood back to venous circulation
  7. where would u find the subarchoid space? what is the purpose of this space?
    in the middle of archoid layer and csf accumulates there
  8. whats types of cells make the blood brain barrier?
    astrocytes(neuroglia)
  9. whats the purpose of bbb
    regulates substances going thru brain
  10. what substances CANT cross the bbb?
    proteins and anti-biotics
  11. what substances can cross the bbb?
    lipid soluable by diffusion alchol,O2,CO2
  12. what types of cells synthesize the csf?
    ependymal cells
  13. what are the functions of csf?
    • chem. reg,circulation of glucose,co2,o2 and waste products
    • protection,circulation
  14. how are nutrients and waste exchanged by csf and blood?
    chroid plexus,capularies thru,ependymal cells
  15. know how csf circulates thru central nervious system?
    lateral ventricle,3rd ventricle,4th,subnoid space,archovills,old csf back to veanus cirulation
  16. in the brainstem everything controlled can be fatal true r false?
    true
  17. medulla oblongata what r the structures?
    diencerephalon,midbrain,pons
  18. medulla oblongata nuclei?
    • 1sensory & motor nuclei
    • 2relay nuclei
    • 3autonomic nuclei
  19. what r the sensory and motor nuclei? of medulla oblongata
    hypoglossal,assesory,vagus,glossopharyngeal
  20. what does the vestibulovovhlear do is it sensory r motor
    sensory, hearing & equilibrium
  21. sensory r motor and action of glossopharyngeal
    • both;sensory taste in the posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • motor,gagging,swallowing,salivation
  22. what does vagus do sensory r motor
    • both, taste 2 back of tongue and hungar
    • motor,innervation of nearly all organs
  23. accessory sensory r motor and what does it do
    motor,swallowing,neck and head movements
  24. hypoglossal what does it do and what motor r sensory
    motor ,tongue movements,food manipulation,swallowing and speech
  25. relay nuclei does what?
    sends info
  26. what is the function of nucleus gracilis
    sensory of inferior half of body
  27. what is the function of nucleus cuneatus
    carrying fine touch preception of upper body
  28. information relay by solitary nucleus?
    taste recieves,organ fullness,hunger
  29. function of olivary nucleus?
    auditory info from red nucleous
  30. how does respritory rhythmicity ncenter control respiration
    rhythem basic pace& dept respiration
  31. understand the functions of the cardiac and vasomotor centers
    heart rate and contraction force
  32. what types of activities would be controlled by the general reflex centers
    sneezing,coughing,swallowing,vomiting,hiccuping
  33. what r the function of the superior and inferior colliculi(midbrain)
    • superior;response to visual stimuli
    • inferior responce to responce to auto
  34. produced by substaqntia nigra? what role does this play in the body?(midbrain)
    dopomine and make body contracts smooth
  35. functions of apneuxtic and pneumotaxic centers(pons)
    regu8lation by nucli of cranial nerves. BOTH CENTERS REG BY RESPRITORY RHYTH CENTER
  36. nerves in pons
    trigeminal,abducens,facial vestolochanter
  37. function of trigerminal
    controls chewing
  38. abducens function
    motor eye movement
  39. facial function
    saliva and tears
  40. vestibular function
    balence and equalibrum
  41. (epithalamus) habenular nuclei
    emotional smell responce
  42. what hormone is secreted by the pineal gland?(epithalamus) What does it do?
    melatonin;regulates sleep and wake cycles
  43. how does the thalamus filter sensory info?
    goes to auditory coetex or not. if not unaware
  44. thalamic nuclei parts
    anterior group, medial group, ventral group ,lateral group ,posterior group
  45. anterior group
    component of limbic system,memory & emotion
  46. medial group
    takes from anterior sends to prefontal cortex to provide emotional awareness
  47. ventral group
    sends to primary somatic sensory cortex allows us to filter tactile sensations.
  48. lateral group
    part of limbic system -sends info to associated areas
  49. posterior group
    • sends visual signals to visual cortex
    • -allows to tone out visual stimuli
    • medial geniculates relay auditory into
    • primary auditory cortex allows to tune out sounds
  50. nucleus in hypothalamus
    • mamillary,posterior,dorsomedial,
    • ventromedia,arcuate,paraventricula,anterior
    • ,supraop,preoptic,suprachiasmatic nucleus
  51. mamillary nucleus
    • relays info between thalamus and limbic system.
    • helps form long term memories
  52. posterior nucleus
    regulates emotion ,pain control
  53. dorsaL NUCLEUS
    rage and other emotions
  54. ventromedial nucleus
    • regulates appetite,releases hormones&control
    • the pituitary gland -hunger sensations
  55. paraventricula nucleus
    • produces oxytocin-contractions for childbirth
    • -milk ejection for breast feeding
  56. anterior nucleus
    thirst center-thermoregulator
  57. supraop nucleus
    adh anti diuretic hormone-
  58. preoptic nucleus
    hormone control and regulate reproduction
  59. suprachiasmatic nucleus
    • regulates ciradian patterns retina light
    • dark info -> suprachiasmatic tnucli->
    • control melatonin secretion
  60. gray and white matter arranged in cerebrum
    • white-deep to cerebral cortex gray-matter
    • deep inside white matter
  61. whats the difference gray and white matter?
    myalated is white,unmyalated gray
  62. function of projection tracts?
    connect cerebrum 2 remainder of brain
  63. function of association tracts
    connect gyri with 1 hemi L->L R->R
  64. commissural tracts
    connect 2 hemis L->R
  65. basal nuclei play in learned body movements
    initate and terminate
  66. how does the basal nuclei help coordinate movement patterns
    from cebral cortex 2-> thalamus
  67. understand function of limbic system
    emotion-motivation center
  68. amygala is
    rage
  69. primary somatosensory does whaat
    tactile perceptions
  70. primary sensory cortex where and does what
    • postcentral gyrus,awareness of tactile sensations
    • the gyro has been mapped out by the
    • sensory homunculus tells us what gyro respond
    • to diff body parts
  71. primary vissual cortex where and what does it do
    occipital lobe) concious perception stimuli
  72. primary auditory cortex,where is it what does it do
    temporal lobepreception of sounds primary auditory
  73. primary gustatory cortex where and what does it do
    middle, taste perception and some discrimination
  74. primary olfactory cortex
    temportal lobe,smell
  75. how primary motor cortex control movement
    • vol. motor hommulus, map of gyrus-tells us
    • which area will control what muscle
  76. brocas area functions
    control movement of lips teeth TONGUE -breath vocal movement
  77. associated area and sensory cortexes diff
    • associated area anaysis from sensory input
    • - differents types of tactile sensations--
    • -- reconize things by touch distinguish
    • shape&texture of object
  78. auditory association area
    reconize voices radio person on phone etc
  79. orbitofrontal cortex does what
    reconize smells association of taste
  80. 3 diff types brain waves
    theta-alpha beta
  81. thelta info
    4-7hz extreme emotion stress
  82. delta info
    1-5hz deep sleep
  83. beta info
    14-30hz high mental activity like processing motor commands
  84. wernikes area info
    reconizing spoken words arranging in coprrect order when speaking
  85. visual association area
    cortex reconization visual association visual reconization etc d.o.g. ....dog
  86. common integrative area info
    • info from association areas allows for
    • very complex analysis of the sensory info
  87. prefrontal cortex
    • recieves in prefontal cortex from everywhere
    • for mood judgement,intuition,ex lobotomy
  88. premotor area
    • learned movement patterns stop start
    • -basal nuclei-cerebellum control the movements
    • & storage site for movement pattern
  89. frontal eye field
    volentary scanning movement of eyes

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