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what are the names given to the folds and grooves on the surface of the cerebral cortex?
grooves are sulcus and folds are gyro
major components of brain
list 3 meningeal layers in order
- 1)dura mater
- 2)archoid matrer 3)pia mater
what type of tissue would each be composed of for the meningeal layers?
1)dura mater-dense irregular fiberious tissue 2archoid mater colllage and elastic fibers 3)pia mater fiberious filaments
where would u find the endosteal layer of the dura mater?
whats the purpose of the dural sinus?
returns blood back to venous circulation
where would u find the subarchoid space? what is the purpose of this space?
in the middle of archoid layer and csf accumulates there
whats types of cells make the blood brain barrier?
whats the purpose of bbb
regulates substances going thru brain
what substances CANT cross the bbb?
proteins and anti-biotics
what substances can cross the bbb?
lipid soluable by diffusion alchol,O2,CO2
what types of cells synthesize the csf?
what are the functions of csf?
- chem. reg,circulation of glucose,co2,o2 and waste products
how are nutrients and waste exchanged by csf and blood?
chroid plexus,capularies thru,ependymal cells
know how csf circulates thru central nervious system?
lateral ventricle,3rd ventricle,4th,subnoid space,archovills,old csf back to veanus cirulation
in the brainstem everything controlled can be fatal true r false?
medulla oblongata what r the structures?
medulla oblongata nuclei?
- 1sensory & motor nuclei
- 2relay nuclei
- 3autonomic nuclei
what r the sensory and motor nuclei? of medulla oblongata
what does the vestibulovovhlear do is it sensory r motor
sensory, hearing & equilibrium
sensory r motor and action of glossopharyngeal
- both;sensory taste in the posterior 1/3 of tongue
what does vagus do sensory r motor
- both, taste 2 back of tongue and hungar
- motor,innervation of nearly all organs
accessory sensory r motor and what does it do
motor,swallowing,neck and head movements
hypoglossal what does it do and what motor r sensory
motor ,tongue movements,food manipulation,swallowing and speech
relay nuclei does what?
what is the function of nucleus gracilis
sensory of inferior half of body
what is the function of nucleus cuneatus
carrying fine touch preception of upper body
information relay by solitary nucleus?
taste recieves,organ fullness,hunger
function of olivary nucleus?
auditory info from red nucleous
how does respritory rhythmicity ncenter control respiration
rhythem basic pace& dept respiration
understand the functions of the cardiac and vasomotor centers
heart rate and contraction force
what types of activities would be controlled by the general reflex centers
what r the function of the superior and inferior colliculi(midbrain)
- superior;response to visual stimuli
- inferior responce to responce to auto
produced by substaqntia nigra? what role does this play in the body?(midbrain)
dopomine and make body contracts smooth
functions of apneuxtic and pneumotaxic centers(pons)
regu8lation by nucli of cranial nerves. BOTH CENTERS REG BY RESPRITORY RHYTH CENTER
nerves in pons
function of trigerminal
motor eye movement
saliva and tears
balence and equalibrum
(epithalamus) habenular nuclei
emotional smell responce
what hormone is secreted by the pineal gland?(epithalamus) What does it do?
melatonin;regulates sleep and wake cycles
how does the thalamus filter sensory info?
goes to auditory coetex or not. if not unaware
thalamic nuclei parts
anterior group, medial group, ventral group ,lateral group ,posterior group
component of limbic system,memory & emotion
takes from anterior sends to prefontal cortex to provide emotional awareness
sends to primary somatic sensory cortex allows us to filter tactile sensations.
part of limbic system -sends info to associated areas
- sends visual signals to visual cortex
- -allows to tone out visual stimuli
- medial geniculates relay auditory into
- primary auditory cortex allows to tune out sounds
nucleus in hypothalamus
- ,supraop,preoptic,suprachiasmatic nucleus
- relays info between thalamus and limbic system.
- helps form long term memories
regulates emotion ,pain control
rage and other emotions
- regulates appetite,releases hormones&control
- the pituitary gland -hunger sensations
- produces oxytocin-contractions for childbirth
- -milk ejection for breast feeding
adh anti diuretic hormone-
hormone control and regulate reproduction
- regulates ciradian patterns retina light
- dark info -> suprachiasmatic tnucli->
- control melatonin secretion
gray and white matter arranged in cerebrum
- white-deep to cerebral cortex gray-matter
- deep inside white matter
whats the difference gray and white matter?
myalated is white,unmyalated gray
function of projection tracts?
connect cerebrum 2 remainder of brain
function of association tracts
connect gyri with 1 hemi L->L R->R
connect 2 hemis L->R
basal nuclei play in learned body movements
initate and terminate
how does the basal nuclei help coordinate movement patterns
from cebral cortex 2-> thalamus
understand function of limbic system
primary somatosensory does whaat
primary sensory cortex where and does what
- postcentral gyrus,awareness of tactile sensations
- the gyro has been mapped out by the
- sensory homunculus tells us what gyro respond
- to diff body parts
primary vissual cortex where and what does it do
occipital lobe) concious perception stimuli
primary auditory cortex,where is it what does it do
temporal lobepreception of sounds primary auditory
primary gustatory cortex where and what does it do
middle, taste perception and some discrimination
primary olfactory cortex
how primary motor cortex control movement
- vol. motor hommulus, map of gyrus-tells us
- which area will control what muscle
brocas area functions
control movement of lips teeth TONGUE -breath vocal movement
associated area and sensory cortexes diff
- associated area anaysis from sensory input
- - differents types of tactile sensations--
- -- reconize things by touch distinguish
- shape&texture of object
auditory association area
reconize voices radio person on phone etc
orbitofrontal cortex does what
reconize smells association of taste
3 diff types brain waves
4-7hz extreme emotion stress
1-5hz deep sleep
14-30hz high mental activity like processing motor commands
wernikes area info
reconizing spoken words arranging in coprrect order when speaking
visual association area
cortex reconization visual association visual reconization etc d.o.g. ....dog
common integrative area info
- info from association areas allows for
- very complex analysis of the sensory info
- recieves in prefontal cortex from everywhere
- for mood judgement,intuition,ex lobotomy
- learned movement patterns stop start
- -basal nuclei-cerebellum control the movements
- & storage site for movement pattern
frontal eye field
volentary scanning movement of eyes
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