FDNS 4050 Final

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  1. Preadolescence: Girls
    Ages 9-11
  2. Preadolescence: Boys
    Ages 10-12
  3. Average Annual Growth During the School Years
    • 7 pounds in weight
    • 2.5 inches in height
  4. During the early childhood years, percent body fat reaches a minimum of what percent in females?
  5. During the early childhood years, percent body fat reaches a minimum of what percent in males?
  6. The increase in percent body fat in puberty averages how much in females?
  7. The increase in percent body fat in puberty averages how much in males?
  8. What is the only way to know whether a child's BMI is outside the normal range for his/her age?
    Plotting BMI-for-age on the growth chart
  9. Early "dieting" by preadolescents may be a risk factor for...
  10. What could parents be promoting by imposing controls & restrictions on a child's intake of a certain food?
    The intake of the forbidden or restricted food
  11. Approximately how many children aged 6 to 8 years has/have decay in the primary or permanent teeth?
    One in two
  12. What may have a protective effect on tooth enamel?
    Fats & Proteins
  13. Fats & Proteins
    May have a protective effect on tooth enamel
  14. Fluoride
    • School-age children need it supplied
    • Either through the water system or supplementation
  15. The increase in the prevalence of overweight in children over the years seems to be due to...
    Physical inactivity
  16. Approximately what percent of children ages 6 to 11 are overweight?
  17. Overweight Children & Sexual Maturity
    Tend to experience sexual maturity at an earlier age than their non-overweight peers
  18. Adiposity Rebound
    • The normal increase in body mass index
    • Occurs after BMI declines, at about 4 to 6 years of age
  19. What's the most significant predictor of childhood obesity?
    Maternal obesity
  20. For each additional hour of TV viewed in the 12 to 17 age group, the prevalence of obesity increased by what percent?
  21. Which age group has the highest rate of daily television viewing?
    11-13 years
  22. Children who have a BMI >/= 95 percent and who have mild hypertension or hyperlipidemia should do what?
    Lose weight
  23. In the new DRIs, how much fat should children consume in a day?
    No reccomendations have been made
  24. Are sports drinks (4-8% carbs) appropriate for children?
  25. What percent of children aged 7 to 12 years have a good diet?
  26. What percent of middle and junior high schools require daily physical activity for all students?
  27. How many minutes of physical activity is it recommended that children engage in daily?
    60 minutes
  28. "Pouring Rights"
    Contracts btw schools & soft drink companies whereby the school receives a %age of profits in exchange for the school offering only that soft-drink company's products on the school campus
  29. School lunches must provide how much of the DRI's of the age/grade group of children being served for energy, protein, and select vitamins & minerals.
  30. Children with cystic fibrosis may need protein levels at what percent of the RDA?
  31. Caloric and protein needs on a body-weight basis are ___ during childhood than during the preadolescent, toddler, or preschool years.
  32. Gastronomy feeding may be required in children with...
    • Kidney stones
    • Some cancers
    • Severe forms of cerebral palsy
    • Severe forms of cystic fibrosis
  33. Which supplements are especially needed in cystic fibrosis?
    Vitamins A, D, E, & K
  34. Galactosemia
    Children with it may need to be supplemented with calcium
  35. Spina Bifida
    Children with it may need to be supplemented with Vitamin C
  36. Type 1 Diabetes
    • Related to immune function
    • Results in virtually no insulin production
  37. Cystic Fibrosis
    Pancreatic enzymes are lacking
  38. Seizures seem to decrease when...
    Brain metabolism is switched from the usual fuel of glucose to ketones
  39. Cerebral Palsy
    No specific vitamins or minerals are known to correct it
  40. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    Need to avoid high-protein fruits
  41. The incidence of ADD & ADHD are estimated to be what percent of school-age children?
  42. Have theories about specific foods or nutrients causing ADHD been proven scientifically?
  43. Infants with HIV
    Often display failure to thrive
  44. 3 Predictors of Childhood Obesity
    • 1. The age at "adiposity rebound." A late adiposity rebound- age 7 or later- is linked to a higher chance of childhood obesity.
    • 2. Child's home environment. Includes maternal obesity, family income, & the level of cognitive stimulation.
    • 3. Parental obesity. Could be due to environmental factors or genetic factors. If both parents are obese, children are even more likely to be obese themselves.
  45. Recommendations for Calcium Intake for Younger & Older Children
    • Younger children (ages 4-8): 800mg/day
    • Older children (ages 9-18): 1300mg/day
  46. Source of Calcium for Traditional American Diet
    Milk or dairy products
  47. Source of Calcium for Vegan Diet
    Orange juice fortified with calcium
  48. Source of Calcium for a Diet Limited in Lactose
    Low-lactose dairy products
  49. Ketogenic Diet
    • Used for patients w/ seizures
    • Severely limits carbs & increases calories from fat
    • Adequate in calories & protein
    • Vitamins & minerals added as supplements
    • May allow seizure meds to be reduced/eliminated over time
    • Causes problems w/ measuring growth, blood glucose, & ketones in urine
    • Recommended for 2 years if it proves to be effective
  50. Consequences of ADHD Psychostimulant Medications
    • Decrease in appetite
    • Maintaining growth while being medicated is difficult
    • Mealtime behavior
    • Adjustments (like timing medication so it'll peak @ meal/snack times) can help lessen consequences
  51. What should be used to assess biological growth & development of an adolescent?
    • Sexual maturation
    • Biological age
  52. Average Age of Menarch
    12.4 years
  53. For females, what percent of final adult height will be gained during puberty?
  54. As much as what percent of ideal adult body weight is gained during adolescence?
  55. By age 18, more than what percent of adult skeletal mass has been formed?
  56. Body Fat During Puberty (Females)
    On average, increases from 16% to 27%
  57. What percent of daily energy intake do snacks account for among adolescents?
  58. How many adolescents skip lunch?
    Almost one-quarter
  59. Soft Drinks
    High consumption may increase the risk for bone fractures over an individual's lifetime
  60. Adolescents who consume a (lacto-ovo) vegetarian diet should be carefully assessed for the presence of...
    Eating disorders
  61. In what circumstance can it be assumed that energy needs are being met?
    If, over time, height as well as weight-for-height continuously fall within the same percentiles when plotted on gender-appropriate growth charts
  62. How many tsp. of sugar do males generally consume per day?
  63. How many tsp. of sugar do females generally consume per day?
  64. When is calcium accretion in bone mass almost nonexistant?
    • Females: By age 24
    • Males: By age 26
  65. Recommended Intake of Carbs for Teens
    45-65% of daily energy needs
  66. Recommended Intake of Milk, Milk Products, or Fortified Soy Milk for Teens
    4 servings per day
  67. Hemoglobin & Hematrocit Levels
    • Commonly used to screen for the presence of iron deficiency anemia
    • Actually the last serum indicators of depleted iron stores to drop
  68. Zinc
    Plays an important role in sexual development
  69. Folate
    Adequate levels prior to pregnancy may reduce the incidence of spina bifida & Down syndrome
  70. Cigarette smoking increases the need for...
    Vitamin C
  71. It's recommended that adolescents engage in how many minutes of physical activity on most days of the week?
    60 minutes or more
  72. What percent of adolescents report no moderate to vigorous physical activity?
  73. Competitive athletes may require how many additional calories per day to meet their energy needs?
  74. Complex Carbohydrates
    The most readily available source of energy during exercise
  75. How should weight status among adolescents be assessed?
    By calculating BMI
  76. For severely obese adolescents, as well as those with significant medical complications, doctors may recommend...
    • Use of very low-calorie diets
    • Protein-sparing modified fasts
    • Bariatric surgery
  77. What are recommended for adolescent weight management programs?
    No specific physical activities or dietary regimens
  78. Regional data suggest that the prevalence of overweight among which ethnicity adolescent males is higher than other racial/ethnic groups?
    American Indians
  79. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
    • Controlled substances used to increase lean body mass
    • Have been linked to infertility & physeal closure
  80. How many ounces of fluid ingestion does each pound of body weight lost during physical activity require to maintain proper hydration?
    16 ounces
  81. High Protein Diets
    • Should be discouraged among athletes
    • May contain high levels of total fat & saturated fat
    • May delay digestion & absorption
    • May increase the risk of dehydration
  82. Which group reports the lowest prevalence of smoking?
    Black females
  83. By the twelfth grade, more than what percent of adolescents had tried alcohol?
  84. Iron Deficiency
    Most common nutritional deficiency noted among children & adolescents
  85. How often should all adolescent females be screened for anemia?
    Every 5 years
  86. Approximately how many adolescents in the US have an elevated cholesterol level.
    One in four
  87. Anorexia
    Characterized by self-starvation and strong fears of being fat
  88. Bulimia Nervosa
    Characterized by binging & purging, weight maintenance, & weight fluctuations
  89. What percent of adolescent girls in the US consider themselves overweight and have attempted to diet?
  90. What is a reasonable estimate of adolescents who've engaged in anorexic or bulimic behaviors?
    Between 10-20%
  91. The relative risk for dieters to develop an eating disorder was how many times higher than that for non-dieters after a one-year period?
  92. What tips would you give an adolescent to increase the nutrient content of a fast food meal?
    • Choose juice, water, or milk instead of soda
    • Choose a side of fruit, baked potatoe, or salad instead of french fries
    • Keep the meal at small size instead of super size or value size
  93. Relationship Between Adolescents who Consume a Vegetarian Diet & Eating Disorders
    • Some adolescents eat vegetarian diets as a way to restrict fat or calories
    • Vegetarian adol.'s are almost 2x as likely to report frequent or chronic dieting
    • Veg. adol.'s are almost 4x as likely to report purging
    • Veg. adol.'s are almost 8x as likely to report laxative use
  94. Criteria for Performing Bariatric Surgery on Adolescents
    • Must have a BMI of greater than 40 with medical complications
    • OR must have a BMI of greater than 50 w/out medical complications
    • Be through most of their growth spurt
    • Should try other weight loss methods first
  95. 5 General Guidelines for Weight Management Therapy
    • 1. All family members & caregivers should be involved in the weight management program
    • 2. Weight management programs should emphasize goals of improving eating & physical activity patterns as opposed to specific weight goals
    • 3. New behavior changes shouldn't be instituted until previous changes have been accomplished & maintained
    • 4. Early intervention is recommended, pref. before the child reaches the 95th percentile for BMI
    • 5. Routine follow-up visits should be scheduled to monitor progress & prevent relapse to former eating & activity patterns
  96. Prevalence of Dieting Behavior in Adolescents
    • Boys: 37%
    • Girls: 44%
  97. Risks of Dieting
    • Development of eating disorders
    • Not meeting daily energy & nutrient requirements
  98. What has the greatest influence on long life?
    Life style factors
  99. Since the first Healthy People 2000 report was generated in 1979, what has not declined?
  100. Overall, approximately what percent of adult body cells are replaced every day?
  101. For men, a gradual decline in testosterone levels begins at about what age?
    40 to 50
  102. Olfactory Impairment
    • 6% of people in their 50s have them
    • Approximately 60% of people over 80 y/o have them
  103. After cessation of menstrual blood loss, the need for iron decreases to how many mg daily?
  104. After menopause, the lack of estrogen & progesterone levels...
    Leads to a rise in total blood cholesterol
  105. Phytoestrogens (in Soy)
    • Have estrogenic activity
    • May decrease "hot flashes" during menopause
    • Function as antioxidants
  106. Soy Protein
    • Increases HDL cholesterol
    • Decreases LDL cholesterol
    • Decreases blood triglycerides
  107. Individuals vary by as much as what percent in their caloric expenditures during light to moderate activity?
  108. How many calories does it take to gain or lose one pound of body fat?
    3,500 calories
  109. Weight Cycling
    • Yo-yo dieting
    • Associated w/ kidney disfunction
  110. The current online pyramid will calculate suggested energy intake based on...
    • Height
    • Weight
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Activity level
  111. Overall, what percent of adults in the US drink alcohol?
  112. How long can adults survive without food?
    Roughly 60 days
  113. How long can adults survive without water?
  114. Is average fluid intake adequate to meet human needs?
  115. Is there evidence connecting drinking coffee or tea or other caffeine-containing fluids w/ dehydration?
  116. What's a simple, yet practical guide to adqueate fluid intake?
    Evaluate the colour of urine
  117. Which nutrients are of public health concern because intake levels don't meet recommendations?
    • Magnesium
    • Vitamin E
    • Fiber
    • Folic Acid
  118. Fat Intake as Percent of Calories
    • 1970s: 41%
    • 1999-2000: 33%
  119. Average Daily Dietary Fiber Recommendations
    • Males: 38 grams
    • Females: 25 grams
  120. Vitamin E Supplements
    Associated with increased all-cause mortality
  121. Calcium Carbonate
    • A calcium supplement
    • Can interfere with iron absorption
  122. By 2010, what percent of food dollars will be spent away from home, with fast-food restaurants as
    the fastest-growing type of operation?
  123. What are potential health benefits of vegetarian diets?
    • Decreased risk of mortality & symptoms of heart disease
    • Vegetable foods are lower on the food chain than meat, fish, & poultry
    • Decreased risk of prostate & colorectal cancers
    • Improved risk profile for kidney disease
    • Lower incidence of hypertension
  124. Protein Intake of Vegetarians
    • Generally adequate
    • But lower overall protein quality & intake
  125. Inactivity in the IS has ____ in the last 10 years.
    Decreased slightly
  126. What percentage of US adults (18-64 y/o) live in poverty?
    About 11%
  127. Food Stamp Program
    The largest of all nutrition assistance programs
  128. What are the 4 most common cancers in adults?
    • Prostate
    • Breast
    • Colorectal
    • Lung
  129. It is estimated that smoking causes about what percent of all US deaths from cancer?
  130. Lifestyle Habits of US Adults
    • Smoking rates are decreasing
    • Total dietary fat as a percentage of total calories has declined
    • Alcohol consumption is stable
    • Vegetable consumption isn't meeting national guidelines
  131. What's the main nutrition-risk associated with cancer in the US?
    Low intake of Vitamin B12
  132. Atherosclerosis
    • A characteristic of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
    • Hardening of the arteries due to plaque build-up in the walls of the arteries
  133. Strongest Risk Factor for Heart Disease
    Abnormal blood lipid levels
  134. Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes Recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program
    • Saturated fat should be less than 7% of calories
    • Monounsaturated fatty acids should contribute up to 20% of calories
    • Total fat should range between 25-35% of calories
    • Dietary cholesterol should be less than 200mg per day
  135. The number of obese individuals has ____ since 1980.
  136. What's a particularly potent risk factor for insulin resistance?
    Abdominal obesity ("apple shape")
  137. Metabolic Syndrome
    • Includes a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes & heart disease
    • High blood insulin levels
    • Low levels of HDL cholesterol
    • Elevated blood triglyceride levels
    • High levels of central body fat
  138. Phytoestrogens in Soy & Alleviation of Menopausal Symptoms in Women
    • Supplement endogenous estrogen when estrogen levels are low in women
    • Might be related to lower incidences of hot flashes & night sweats
    • Can increase HDL cholesterol, decrease LDL cholesterol, & decrease triglycerides
  139. What percent of the North American population is aged 65 and older?
  140. What's the average life expectancy in the US?
    78 years
  141. What would the greatest dietary improvement in the older adult population be?
    To eat more whole grains
  142. What can an energy-restricted diet that meets micronutrient needs do?
    Prolong healthy life
  143. Of all physiologic changes that occur during aging, the
    biggest effect on nutritional status...
    ...is due to the shifts in the musculoskeletal system
  144. Many individuals experience a decline in what with aging?
    • Body water
    • Lean body mass (muscle)
    • Body minerals
  145. Elderly People & Thirst
    Don't seem to notice thirst as clearly as younger people do
  146. What do older adults tend to consume in insufficient amounts?
    • Protein
    • Vitamin E
    • Folic Acid
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
  147. Adequate fiber intake is associated with decreases in what?
    • Diverticular disease
    • Non-insulin dependent diabetes
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Hypertension
  148. Adequate Carb Intake & Elderly
    Not a problem
  149. Eggs
    • High cholesterol
    • Nutrient-dense
    • Safe for most people who don't have a lipid disorder
  150. Age-related metabolic changes affect vitamin D status, primarily due to what?
    Decreased ability of the skin to synthesize previtamin D3
  151. Why might not many of the elderly be unable to utilize vitamin B12?
    Because of existing atrophic gastritis
  152. Older adults are more likely to overdose with what nutrient than to be deficient in it?
    Vitamin A
  153. The need for what nutrient decreases with aging for women after menopause?
  154. Which nutrient plays a special role in the health of older adults due to its antioxidant functions, such as hindering development of heart disease and cataracts?
    Vitamin E
  155. What have low calcium intakes been linked to?
    • Colon cancer
    • Overweight
    • Hypertension
  156. Zinc & Older Adults
    Plays a role in wound healing, taste acuity, & immune response
  157. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements
    Should be used (in general) in physiological rather than high-potency doses to maintain a balance of vitamins & minerals
  158. Leading Practices that Put an Older Person at Risk for Food-Borne Illnesses
    • Improper holding temperature of foods
    • Poor personal hygiene
    • Contaminated food preparation equipment
    • Inadequate cooking time
  159. Muscle Mass
    The major determinant of age- & gender-related differences in strenght, independent of where the muscle is located
  160. Senior Nutrition (Title IIIC of the Older American Act)
    Community-based nutrition program
  161. Senior Nutrition (Title IIIC of the Older American Act) Provides...
    • Congregate meals
    • Home-delivered meals
    • Nutrition screening & education
    • Increased social contact
  162. Participants in home-delivered or congregate meals had up to what percent higher intake of recommended nutrients as compared to non-participants?
  163. What percentage of older people consider their health to be good, very good, or excellent?
  164. What percentage of older Americans has one or more chronic conditions, such as high blood cholesterol, hypertension, osteoporosis, obesity, etc.?
  165. Risk Factors for Stroke
    • Cigarette smoking
    • Sickle cell anemia
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Long-term high blood pressure
  166. What can be protective against stroke?
    Moderate amounts of any type of alcohol
  167. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH Diet)
    • Useful in decreasing blood pressure & stroke
    • Especially high in fruits & veggies
  168. What's the primary diet strategy for cancer risk reduction?
    Fruit & veggie consumption
  169. What's a dietary strategy recommended specifically to reduce prostate cancer risk?
    Increase consumption of lycopene (tomatoes)
  170. Consequences of Diabetes
    • Tenfold greater risk of: Amputation, Visual loss, Nueropathies
    • Also leads to: Declines in organ function
  171. Fasting blood glucose of how many mg/dl or higher is the diagnostic criteria for diabetes?
    126 mg/dl
  172. Chromium Picolinate
    Has been shown to reduce insulin needs in diabetics
  173. In the United States, nearly how many of older adults are not just overweight, but obese?
  174. BMI & Older Adults
    Health care providers should be more flexible when it comes to BMI recommendations for older adults (ie- allow a broader range of BMIs)
  175. Nutritional Remedies that can Improve Calcium Intake & Absorption
    • Taking supplements w/ a meal
    • Getting adequate Vitamin C, K, & B6
    • Drink milk
    • Don't take supplements with antacids (since stomach acid will help with absorption)
  176. Soy
    Individuals choosing not to take hormone replacements may try it for its estrogen-like activity.
  177. Pernicious Anemia
    Results when a lack of intrinsic factor prevents absorption of Vitamin B12
  178. Osteoarthritis
    The first remedy advised for treatment is weight loss
  179. Atrophic Gastritis
    Bacteria in the stomach leads to inflammation, which decreases hormones that make it impossible to take the B12 from its food source
  180. Consequences of Atrophic Gastritis
    Eventual B12 deficiency, which causes personality changes, poor physical coordination, & the deterioration of mental functioning
  181. Risk Factors of Diabetes
    • 1. Race/Ethnicity: More likely in blacks
    • 2. Body Weight/Abdominal Fat: More fat is more likely, esp. when they store it in their abdominal area
    • 3. Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition linked to increased risk of heart disease
Card Set
FDNS 4050 Final
FDNS 4050 Final
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