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Out of Africa Hypothesis
- Evolved into H. erectus, and possibly H. florensis in Asia
- Evolved into H. heidelbergensis and then H. neanderthalensis in Europe and middle east
Modern humans are all descended from the H. sapiens of the second migration out of Africa
60kya: people from one African population migrate to Eurasia and Asia
each subsequent founder effect further reduces variation.
we can use the global variation in mtDNA to reconstruct a phylogeny
-variation is gradual over geographic distances (cline).
-those groups who live closest to each other are more similar than those who live farther away
-more gene flow between nearby groups adaptation to similar environments
3 Chimpanzee population
-East Africa (Pan trohlodytes schweinfurthi)
Human Genetic Variation