Acts in History
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Charter Act of 1813
The East India Company was deproved of monopoly of trade except for tea.
It threw open the Indian trade to all British merchants
Charter Act of 1853
For the first time, a separate legislative machinery was creted by enlarging the council of Governor-General.
The act was different from earlier charter acts in so far as it renewed the lease of the company fr an unspecified period
Govt of India Act 1858
The secretary of state for India had to be assisted by a council of 15 members which was composed exclusively from the people from England
The British Crown assumed sovereignty over India from the East India Company
There was no system of separation of functions and all the authority for the Govt of India was not decentralised
The British parliament became the direct guardian of India and the office of the secretary of state for India was created for the administratin of Indian affairs
The british parliament became the direct guardian of India and the office of the secretaruy of state for India was created for the administration of Indian affairs
The administration was unitary and centralised under this act
The office of the Secretary of State for india was created under this Act
The Secretary of the State was responsible to the British Parliament
Indian Councils Act 1861
The governor-General was for the first time given ordinance making power
It was considered to be a landmark because in the history of legislative system in India since the member of legislative council were given the powers to criticise the act of administration or conduct of the authorities
Representative institutions in India were introduced for the first time by this act
The process of separation of legislation was initiated by this act
Indian Councils Act 1909
Communal electorates were introduced for the first time
Morley-Minto reforms were implemented by this act. The reform was the first attemt at introducing a representative and popular element was made.
By this Act, it was for the first time for separate representation was created for Muslim Community
There was no enlargement of the dunctions of the councils provded added a large number of powers
Reform Act of 1919
System of dyarchy introduced in the provinces
The landmark constitutional dvelopmenmt of India is to be consuidered as Montague-Chelmsford reforms which led to the enactment of this act
- Bicameral legislature was provided at the Centre under this act
- This act failed to fulfill the aspiration of the people in India and led to the agitation by the Congress under the leadership of Mahatma gandhi for ‘swaraj’ or ‘self-government’ known as non-coopoeration movement
The Goveror-General was the authority to decide that whether a particular subject was central or provincial
Dyarchy in the provinces, that is a responsible government, in the provinces was sought to be informed which means that the provinces got power by way of delegation from the centre
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