Microbiology Final

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Microbiology Final
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Microbiology Final
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  1. Microbiology
    Study of microorganisms and their effect on other living things

    Microscope
  2. Taxonmy
    Science of classification; systematized arrangements of related microorganisms and other living things into logical categories
  3. Linnaeus
    Modern basis of taxonomy

    Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia

    K, P, C, O, F, G, S

    Fundamental rank is Species
  4. Species
    Group of individuals in population that can breed with one another
  5. Two or more Sepcies
    Genus
  6. Collection of Genera
    Family
  7. Families with similar characteristics
    Order
  8. Orders are placed together as
    Class
  9. Classes are assembled into
    Phylum (division, in bacteriology and botany)
  10. Two or more Phyla
    Kingdom
  11. 5 Kingdom System
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
    • Fungi
    • Protista
    • Monera
  12. Monera (bacteria and cyanobacteria)
    Prokaryotic and unicellular
  13. Protista
    Eukaryotic and unicellular (protozoa)
  14. Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
    Eukaryotic and mulitcellular (except yeasts)
  15. Yeasts
    Unicellular fungi
  16. Binomial system of nomenclature
    Each organism referred to by two names

    Example: Mycobacterium, tuberculosis

    Fist name - Genus

    Second name - Species
  17. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
    Listing of organisms that belong to Kingdom Procaryotae
  18. Procaryotae
    No true nucleus; lack of neclear membrane
  19. Eukaryotic
    True nucleus (Not found in Bergey's Manual)
  20. Divisions of Microbiology
    • Bacteriology
    • Rickettsiology
    • Virology
    • Protozoology
    • Mycology
  21. Bacteriology
    Science studies bacteria

    Forms spoors for protection
  22. Rickettsiology
    Science studies Rickettsia
  23. Virology
    Study of viruses and viral diseases
  24. Protozoology
    Science studies protozoa
  25. Mycology
    Science studies fungi

    Forms spoors as reproductive method
  26. Bacteria
    Procaryotic one celled microorganism of Kingdom Monera

    Free living organisms, parasites

    Binary fission, large range of biochemical properties

    Has cell wall, no nucleus (no nuclear membrane)
  27. Mycoplasmas
    Bacteria of Mycoplasma genus, found in humans

    Most have no cell wall

    Smallest free-living organisms, intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria

    No cell wall, penicillin does not affect

    Cause of atypical pneumonia
  28. Rickettsia
    Pathogenic, obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria
  29. Obligate intracellular parasites
    Must take over metabolism of living cell to exist
  30. Intracellular
    No cell wall
  31. Chlamydia
    Large group of non-motile, obligate intracellular parasites

    Filterable

    Not free-living
  32. Viruses
    Obligate intracellular, infectious parasite

    Living and reproducing only in living cells

    Not free-living

    Smallest organism, one strand of genetic material
  33. Protozoa
    One celled organisms of Kingdom Protista

    Most unicellular, some colonial

    Ture nucleus

    Single cell animal/plant

    Free living
  34. Fungi
    Group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicellular organisms

    Lacking chlorophyll

    Usually bearing spores, often filamentous

    Reproduce by forming spoors

    Yeasts and Molds

    Eukaryotic
  35. Yeasts
    Single cell
  36. Molds
    Multi-cell
  37. Prion
    Small proteinaceous infectious particle

    Resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids

    Smalles of all

    Slow virus

    1 Strand of genetic material

    No capsule surrounding it
  38. Morphology (shape) of bacteria
    Binary fission

    Asexual reproduction
  39. Binary fission
    Simple transverse cell division
  40. Bacteria size
    Large

    1-2 micrometers wide

    1-20 micrometers long
  41. Micrometer (micron)
    1/25,400
  42. Bacteria Shape
    Acid fast technique

    Spherical - coccus

    Rod - bacillus

    Spiral - spirillum
  43. Spherical - coccus
    Spherical/ovoid; ball

    May form capsule (gelatinous shell)

    Nanometer
  44. Micron
    100 nanometers
  45. Nanometer
    One billionth of a meter
  46. Rod - bacillus
    Like sasuage
  47. Spiral - spirillum
    • Vibrio
    • Spirillum
    • Spirochete
  48. Vibrio spiral
    Comma, or bent rod
  49. Spirillum spiral
    Corkscrew
  50. Spirochete spiral
    Ribbon
  51. Bacteria Arrangements
    Cocci

    Bacilli
  52. Cocci
    • Spherical, ball
    • Diplococci
    • Staphylococci
    • Streptococci
  53. Diplococci (2)
    Pairs (2)
  54. Staphylococci (cluster)
    Nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria

    Grape like clusters
  55. Streptococci (chain)
    Rods

    Chain like colony
  56. Bacilli
    • Rod
    • Diplobacilli
    • Streptobacilli
  57. Diplobacilli
    Double bacillus

    Two linked end to end
  58. Streptobacilli
    Rods

    Chain like colony
  59. Structure, Function of bacteria
    • Cell wall
    • Cell membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Capsule
    • Endospore
    • Flagella
    • Pili
  60. Cell wall
    Ridged

    Gives bacteria shape

    Mycoplasma does Not have ridged cell wall
  61. Cell membrane
    Contained within cell wall
  62. Cytoplasm
    Gooey (plasma) center held in place by cell membrane
  63. Capsule
    Gelatinous outer shell formed as protective mechanism
  64. Endospore
    Sporulating (hibernating)

    Vegetative (growing and producing stage)
  65. Flagella
    Long tail; locomotion

    Remove tail will kill
  66. Pili
    Short whisker like projections; means of attachment
  67. Bacterial colony
    Visible group bacteria growing on sold medium, presumably arising from single microorganism

    Strepthroat - colony; white spots on throat
  68. Conditions affecting bacterial growth
    • Food
    • Oxygen
    • Moisture
    • Temperature
    • pH

    Effect of light on growth
  69. Bacteria Food requirements
    Autrophic bacteria

    Heterotrophic bacteria
  70. Autotrophic bacteria
    Self nourishing; absence of organic compounds

    Obtain carbon from carbon dioxide

    Don't attack humans
  71. Heterotrophic bacteria
    Requires complex organic food from carbon source

    Break down foods

    Eat human cells

    Requires complex/organic food source
  72. Heterotrophic bacteria
    Strict (obligate) saprochytes - Dead food

    Strict (obligate) parasites - Living food

    Facultative bacteria - adaptive
  73. Strict (obligate) Saprophytes
    Heterotrophic

    Dead or decaying organic matter
  74. Strict (obligate) parasites
    Heterotrophic

    Living host

    Living organic matter
  75. Facultative bacteria
    Heterotrophic

    Adapt toconditions

    Opposite from normal state of food eating habits
  76. Bacteria Oxygen requirements
    Strict (obligate) aerobes - need oxygen

    Strict (obligate) anaerobes - no oxygen

    Microaerophilic - minute oxygen

    Facultative bacteria - adaptive
  77. Strict (obligate) aerobes
    • Presence of oxygen
  78. Strict (obligate) anaerobes
    • Without oxygen
  79. Microaerophilic
    Little oxygen; Minute amounts
  80. Facultative bacteria
    Adapt to conditions

    Opposite from normal state
  81. Moisture (water) requirements bacteria
    No water, No life

    May form spoors to survive without water

    Spoors are not alive
  82. Minimum temp.
    Below temp. where growth takes place

    Lowest temp. at which some growth/reproduction will take place
  83. Maximum temp.
    Above which growth will take place

    Highest temp. which some growth will take place
  84. Optimim temerature
    Temp. which most growth/reproduction will take place

    Around same as maximum temp.

    98.6o F or 37o C
  85. Psychrophiles
    Cold loving

    Between 0o C (32o F) and 25o C (770 F)
  86. Mesophiles
    Prefer moderate temp.

    Between 25o C (77o F) and 40o C (104o F)

    Most harmful to humans
  87. Thermophiles
    High temperatures

    Between 40o C (104o F) and 70o C (158o F)

    Proteins usually coagulate at 140o F
  88. pH
    Negative log of Hydrogen Ion concentration (10-x)

    Ranges from -0 to -14, -7 is neutral

    Normal blood pH is 7.35 - 7.45 (slightly alkline)
  89. Light effect on bacterial growth
    Generally harmful (UV rays)

    May kill
  90. Osmotic pressure
    Pressure that develops when twp solutions of different concentrations are separated by semipermeable membrane

    • Hypotonic solution
    • Hypertonic solution
    • Isotonic solution
  91. Hypotonic solution
    Lesser concentration
  92. Hypertonic solution
    Greater concentration
  93. Isotonic solution
    Equal concentration
  94. Hemolysis
    RBC swells and bursts
  95. Crenation
    RBC shrivels/shrinks
  96. Plasmolysis
    Bacterial cell shrivels/shrinks
  97. Plasmoptysis
    Bacterial cell swells and bursts
  98. Formaldehyde gray
    caused by crenation (RBC shrivels) in hypertonic solution
  99. Crenation
    Hypertonic solution
  100. Hemolysis
    Hypotonic solution
  101. Symbiosis
    Living together in close association of different species (2 or more)

    • Mutualism
    • Commensalism
    • Parasitism
  102. Mutualism symbiosis
    Mutual benefit

    No damage to either
  103. Commensalism symbiosis
    One benefits, other not harmed
  104. Parasitism symbiosis
    One is harmed, other benefits

    Host is being harmed
  105. Synergism
    Harmonious action of two microorganisms producing effect that neither could produce alone

    Person with AIDS dying of Pnenmonia
  106. Antagonism
    Mutual opposition/contrary action

    Inhibition of one bacteral by another

    Penicillin (mold) is antagonistic to bacterial growth (disrupts formation of bacterial cell wall)
  107. Levels of control of microorganisms
    Sterilization

    Disinfection

    Antisepsis
  108. Sterilization
    Process of completely removing or destroying all life forms, or their products, on or in substance

    #1 Best method

    Everything is dead
  109. Disinfection
    Destruction of infectious agents by chemical or physical means directly to an inanimate object

    Only kills pathogenic organisms
  110. Antisepsis
    Against sepsis - Prevent growth or reproduction

    Does not kill, worst form of control
  111. Physical methods of control of microorganisms
    • Scrubbing
    • Heat
    • Moist heat
    • Cold
    • Ultraviolet light (UV rays)
  112. Chemical methods of control of microorganisms
    Disinfectants
  113. Heat
    Kills microorganisms

    Heat in its many forms is best ally in control of microorganisms
  114. Free flowing steam
    540 cal hotter per gram than boiling water

    Must do 3 times, over 3 days, for 30 minutes per day (fractional serilization)

    Arnold Field Sterilizer (Civil War sterilization)
  115. Steam under pressure
    Autoclave (pressure cooker)

    15 lb. pressure for 15 minutes at 121.5o C

    Kills all life forms, best one
  116. Disinfectants - icide = KILL
    Chemical or physical agent kills disease-causing microorganism, generally inanimate objects
  117. Sodium Hypochloride
    Household bleach

    Forms Bischloromethyl Ether (BCME) in presence of formaldehyde, Do not use together
  118. Germicide
    Destroys microorganisms

    Not effective against spores
  119. Bactericide
    Agent destroys bacteria, not necessarily spores
  120. Spore formers
    Clostridium and Bacillus (both rod shaped)
  121. Fungicide
    Kills fungi and their spores (yeast and molds)
  122. Viricide
    Destructive to viruses

    Interferon coats outside body cell to prevent virus from penetrating cell
  123. Insecticide
    Macroscopic organisms

    Vector diseases, not cause of disease
  124. Larvacide
    Carry into home with body

    Maggots of housefly NOT affected by HCHO

    Gasoline or WD-40 work well

    Control larvacide by controlling larva
  125. Disinfectants suitable for mortuary procedures
    • Halogens
    • Alcohols
    • Aldehydes
    • Phenolic compounds
    • Quaternary ammonium compounds
  126. Halogens
    7 electrons in outer shell, Poisonous, F, Cl, Br, and I

    Hypochlorites (bleaches)

    Iodophores
  127. Hypochlorites (bleaches)
    Halogen

    OCI- (NaOCI = Houshold bleach)
  128. Iodophores
    Halogen

    Iodine containing compounds (Prepodine)
  129. Alcohols
    Methyl alcohol - CH3OH

    Ethyl - CH3CH2OH

    Isopropyl (2- propanol or sec-propyl alcohol) CH3CHOHCH3
  130. Aldehydes
    Formalin (formaldehyde solution)

    Glutaraldehyde
  131. Formalin (formaldehyde solution)
    Max solution 40% by volume, 37% by weight

    Methanal - one carbon aldehyde
  132. Phenolic compounds
    Aromatic alcohol - does not coagulate proteins

    Usually used in Jaundice for color

    Phenol (carbolic acid)

    Cresols (lysol)

    Hexachlorophene
  133. Phenol (carbolic acid)
    Won't cause color change in Jaundice cases

    Good preservative/disinfectant

    Phenolic compound
  134. Cresols (lysol)
    Methyl derivative of Phenol (methane with phenol)

    Wood preservative

    Phenolic compound
  135. Hexachlorophene
    6 Chlorine

    125x more powerful than phenol

    Phenolic compound
  136. Quaternary ammonium compounds
    Benzalkonium chloride (trade name: Zephiran Chloride)

    Surface disinfectant

    Soap will neutralize
  137. Infection
    State or condition in which body or part of it is invaded by pathogenic agent that under favorable conditions multiplies and produces injurious effects

    Growth and reproduction
  138. Contamination
    Act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance

    • Organisms present, not necessarily growing
    • Inanimate object, contaminated
  139. Pathogenic organisms
    True pathogens

    Opportunists
  140. True pathogens
    Real or genuine disease producing organism

    Cause trouble all by themselves - don't need help
  141. Opportunists
    Normal flora, may become pathogenic

    Can't produce disease withoug help, such as injury or presences of another organism - or too many in wrong place
  142. Pathogenicity
    Producing, able to produce pathological changes and disease

    Disease producing capability

    Name of disease it causes is its pathogenicity
  143. Virulence
    Power and degree of pathogenicity possessed by organisms to produce disease

    How fast it hits

    How pathogenic is it?
  144. Attenuation
    Dilution/weakening of virulence, reducing or abolishing pathogenicity

    Virulence taken away - Vaccines
  145. Indigenous flora
    Plant life occurring or adapted for living in specific environment

    Normal inhabitants
  146. Drug-Fast
    Resistant (as in bacteria) to action of drugs
  147. Exogenous
    Origination outside an organ or part

    Invading organism came from outside body
  148. Endogenous
    Produced or arising from within cell or organism

    Invading organism came from inside body
  149. Acute
    Rapid onset, severe symptoms, short duration
  150. Chronic
    Slow onset, symptoms not as severe, long duration
  151. Communicable diseases
    Transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another

    Person to person

    Contagious (common cold)
  152. Endemic
    Continuously (never ending) in particular region, low mortality

    Colds
  153. Epidemic
    Many people at same time in same geographical area

    Explosive proportions, Roughly 30% of population or more

    Flue
  154. Pandemic
    Majority of population of large region, epidemic at worldwide proportions

    Zombies
  155. Sporadic
    Occasionally or in scattered instances, Intermittent

    No apparent connection, randomly
  156. Non-communicable diseases
    Not easily transfer from person to person

    Tetanus
  157. Primary infection
    Original infection from which a second one originates
  158. Secondary infection
    Infection caused by different organism than one causing primary infection

    2nd infection usually one that kills
  159. Mixed infection
    Caused by two or more organisms

    Synergism: harmonious action of two microorganisms producing an effect that neither could produce alone
  160. Local infection
    Lodging and multiplying at one point in tissue and remaining there

    Stays put
  161. General infection
    Infection that becomes systemic

    All over
  162. Focal infection
    Organisms are originally confined to one area but enter blood or lymph vessel and spread to other parts of body

    Starts local, spreads to systemic
  163. Septicemia
    Condition characterized by multiplication of bacteria in blood
  164. Toxemia
    Toxin = plant or animal origin

    Blood distribution throughout body of poisonous products (waste) of bacteria growing in focal or local site, thus producing generalized symptoms
  165. Bacteremia
    • Bacteria in blood is present but not growing or reproducing
  166. Factors influencing Virulence; Enhancing virulence
    • Toxin production
    • Enzymes
    • Capsules
    • Endospores
  167. Toxin production
    Poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial, or funal origin

    Deadly, biological agent
  168. Exotoxins
    Toxin produced by microorganism and excreated into surrounding medium, generally protein in nature

    Waste products of microorganisms
  169. Endotoxins
    Toxin confined within body of bacterium freed only when bacterium is broken down

    Hypotonic solution causes organism to swell and burst open to spill toxins inot host system
  170. Enzymes
    Bio-catalytic agents
  171. Catalytic
    Substance changes (usually speeds up) rate of chemical reaction, undergoes no net change itself during reaction
  172. Hyaluronidase
    Enzyme digests hyaluronic acid, permits penetration of parasites through tissues; spreading factor

    Breaks down cell walls

    Enzymes usually end in - ase
  173. Coagulase
    Enzyme catalyzes formation of fibrin clot; produced by virulent staphylococci

    Causes cells to clump up
  174. Fibrinolysin
    Reverse effect of Coagulase

    Not allow cells to clump up or clots to form

    Lysis cell - breaks open
  175. Capsules
    Layer of polysaccharides and small proteins that adheres to surface of certain bacteria; serves as buffer between cell and its environment

    Protective mechanism to survive hostile environment

    Sticky shell plugs up lungs, enhancing virulence
  176. Endospores
    Spores not harmful

    Hard seed to survive adverse living conditions

    Dormant; becoming vegetative does the organism affect you
  177. Animals or persons ill of infection
    Manifest infection
  178. Chornic carriers
    Don't know they have it; no symptoms manifested

    Typhoid Mary, Salmonella in horses
  179. Soil transmission
    Microorganisms in soil break down compounds (waste products)
  180. Respiratory tract portal
    Sneezing, coughing; person to person droplet spray
  181. Digestive tract portal
    Carried past stomach by food, water, milk, etc
  182. Genito-urinary tract portal
    STD's
  183. Placenta portal
    Congenital diseases passed through to baby
  184. Mechanical defenses against infection
    Unbroken skin, mucus membranes, washing hands
  185. Physiological defenses agains infection (after gets under skin)
    Fever

    Inflammation

    Phagocytosis
  186. Chemical defenses against infection
    Body secretions

    Antibodies

    Interferon
  187. Phagocytosis
    WBC's multiply and attack organisms
  188. Body secretions, chemical defence agains infection
    Lysozyme

    Gastric juice (HCI)
  189. Lysozyme
    Tears; fight things entering eyes; every cell in body contains it
  190. Gastric juice (HCI)
    Kills organisms; stomach lined with mucus membranes
  191. Antibodies
    Glycoprotein substance deceloped in response to, and interacting specifically with antigen (immunoglobulin)

    Developed by body in response to specific invading organism (Antigen)

    Antibodies are specific to organism
  192. Interferon
    Substance coats outside of cell to prevent penetration of cell by virus

    Prevents spread of disease

    Like mucus membrane that coats body's cells
  193. Antigens
    Foreign substance (from outside body) that stimulates formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it
  194. Antibodies
    Very specific to antigen
  195. Kinds of immunity
    • Natural (innate) immunity
    • Acquired immunity
    • Naturally acquired
    • Artificially acquired
  196. Natural (innate) immunity
    Born with
  197. Acquired immunity
    Immunity not born with
  198. Naturally acquired immunity
    Without outside help from doctors

    Actively acquired always lasts longer than passive acquired
  199. Naturally acquired Active immunity
    Having the disease and recovering
  200. Naturally acquired Passive immunity
    Antibodies from placental transfer and/or from colostrum (mothers milk)
  201. Artifically acquired immunity
    Shot with vaccine or serum
  202. Artificially acquired Active immunity
    Vaccines - Causative organisms are injected into you
  203. Artificially acquired Passive imminity
    Immune serums will wear off after a while, must get booster shot
  204. Bacteria
    Opportunistic disease

    Binomial method of nomeclature (genus and species)
  205. Staphylococcus aureus (glow)
    Grape-Like cluster of cocci

    Food poisoning and/or infections of skin (boils, abscesses), lungs, meninges

    Nosocomial infections (hopital stay)

    Toxic shock syndrome

    Compromised mucus membrane or skin

    Person to person - droplet spray; Boils or abscesses on skin shed

    Reservoir - human nose
  206. Staphylo
    Cluster
  207. Strepto
    Chain
  208. Coccus
    Ball
  209. Bacillus
    Rod
  210. Pyo
    Pus
  211. Genes
    Generating
  212. Reservoir
    Human or other animal that retains disease organisms in body but has not experienced disease and shows no evidence or illness

    Typhoid Mary
  213. Streptococcus pyogenes
    Chain of cocci

    Streptococcal diseases (scarlet fever)

    Pus generator

    Strep throat with skin rash; scarlet fever, septic sore throat (streptococcal sore throat), Puerperal sepsis, Rheumatic fever

    Soft tissue in back of nasopharynx, compromise mucus membrane

    Person to person, droplet sray
  214. Puerperal sepsis
    Child bed fever

    Mother's reproductive tract (uterus), mother dies

    Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenicity
  215. Rheumatic fever
    Damages valves in heart

    Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenicity
  216. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    "Fluid in the lungs"

    Chain of cocci

    Bacterial pneumonia - pneumococcus

    Pathogenicity - Lobar pneumonia, Meningitis, Otitis media

    Capsule former - plus up alveolar process of lungs

    Respiratory

    Person to person droplet spray
  217. Lobar pneumonia
    One lobe of lung, could be more

    Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity
  218. Meningitis
    Inflammation of meninges

    Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity
  219. Otitis media
    Middle ear inflammation, cough into throat migrated through Estuation

    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  220. Nisseria gonorrhoea (gonococcus)
    Bacterial diplococcus

    Transmission - sexual contact, agent of gonorrhea (Ophthalmia neonatorum); STD

    Genital/urinary tract, Pili

    Secual contact, birth canal to eye of baby
  221. Gonorrhea
    Ophthalmia neonatorum - blindness in newborn; Crede treatment = silver nitrate drops/eye
  222. Nisseria meningitidis (meningococcus)
    Bacterial diplococcus

    Person to person, droplets

    Meningococcal meningitis

    Pathogenicity - Epidemic meningitis, Meningococcemia (in blood)

    Respiratory, airborne

    Reservoir - human or animal
  223. Clostridium tetani
    Anaerobic spore forming (when exposed to O2), rod

    Pathogenicity - tetanus (lockjaw)

    Virulence - Endospores, Exotoxin

    Must be anaerobic, deep puncture wounds

    Wound carried on contaminated objects (rusty nail, punji stick)

    Infectious, non-communicable
  224. Exotoxin
    Gives off toxin, disrupts nerve transmission
  225. Toxoid
    Preparation of altered toxin molecules
  226. DPT
    Diphtheria - Tetanus - Pertussis
  227. Clostridium perfringens
    Anaerobic spore forming (when exposed to O2) rod

    Gas gangrene, Tissue gas (gives off gas), Food intoxication

    Endospores, Exotoxins, Enzymes

    Compromised skin, cut or torn mucus membrane

    Normal inhabitant of soil, carried on contaminated hands, etc.
  228. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    Club-shaped rod

    • Pathogenicity - diptheria
    • Exotoxin producer, Localization in pharynx - pseudomembrane formation

    Upper respiratory tract

    Person to person dorplet spray
  229. Salmonella typhi
    Rod shaped

    Transmission - food and/or water, indirect fecal-oral Housefly mechanical vector

    Typhoid fever (disease of intestine)

    Gastro-intestinal tract, digestive

    Dehydration kills
  230. Francisella tularensis
    Rod shaped

    Tularemia (Rabbit fever)

    Unbroken skin - Pores

    Handling infected animals
  231. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Acid-fast rod shape

    Not a spoor or capsule former

    • Tuberculosis
    • High lipid content of cell wall gives it waxy outer coat (natural part of vegetative organism)

    Respiratory tract

    Airborne, environment, indirect more than direct
  232. Mycobacterium avium
    Acid-fast rod shaped

    Pathogenicity - Opportunistic form of TB in AIDS, lung infection in immunocompromised persons

    Normal host - Pigeons

    Respiratory tract

    Birds, Airborne in environment
  233. Micobacterium leprae
    Acid-fast rod shaped, intracellular, pleomorphic, characteristic waxy coating unique to mycobacteria

    Warm tropical countries

    Leprosy (Hansens's disease)
  234. Treponema pallidum
    Spirochete

    Lesions - Primary and Tertiary

    Syphilis, STD

    Genital - Urinary tract
  235. Lesions - Primary
    Chancre (on surface of skin)
  236. Lesions - Terriary
    Gumma (gummy lesion, usually on spinal chord)
  237. Borrelia burgdorferi
    • Spirochete
    • Lyme disease, Untreated - severe arthritis

    Tick bites, deer reservoir
  238. Vibrio cholerae
    Asiatic cholera - Spirochete, curved rod (bent)

    Food and/or water

    Cause of - cholera
  239. Yersinia pestis - Plague
    • Rod shaped
    • Plague, Rats (flease bite rats, then bite you)
  240. Klebsiella pneumoniae
    Encapsulated rod shaped, club shaped

    Contact

    Respiratory tract and intestine, Lobar pneumonia and urinary infection
  241. Clostridium botulinum
    Anaerobic spore forming rod

    Botulism (food poisoning)

    Gives off exotoxin
  242. Bacillus anthracis
    Anthrax, spore former, exotoxin producer

    Dehydration from diarrhea kills

    Airborne, food/water

    Severe blood hemmorrhaging

    Reservor - cows
  243. Hemophilus influenzae (influenzal meningitis)
    Rod shaped

    Respiratory droplets, agent of Haemophilus meningitis (Hib)
  244. Haemophilus meningitis
    Airborne disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae b

    Accompanied by respiratory distress followed by inflammation of meninges
  245. Proteus sp. & Pseudomonas sp.
    Seondary infections of burns

    Genus - Pseudomonas
  246. Shigella sp.
    Group of rods

    Shigellosis - food/water borne bacterial disease of intestine caused by Shigella species, extensive diarrhea (often blood and mucus)

    Bacillary dysentery (major diarrhea)
  247. Leptospira interrogans
    Spirochete

    Leptospirosis - soil borne bacterial disease caused by Leptospira interrogans, mild fever symptoms

    Kitty litter box
  248. Escherichia coli
    Rod shaped

    Food/water

    Travelers' diarrhea, infantile diarrhea

    Genetic engineering techniques and as indicator of water pollution

    Enteritis - E-Coli - Intestines (natural in colin)
  249. Campylobacter jejuni
    Curved rod shape

    Food/water

    Involoved in Campylobacteriosis (food/water borne bacterial disease of intestine caused by Campylobacter jejuni, accompanied by diarrhea) of intestine
  250. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    Without rigid cell wall, looks like egg without shell

    Pathogenicity - primary atypical pneumonia, Not caused by pneumococcus

    Penicillin does not work against, no rigid cell wall
  251. Mycoplasmal pneumonia
    Airborne primary pneumonia

    Droplets

    Lung tissue destruction and respiratory symptoms

    Primary atypical pneumona (PAP), "Primary" (in previously healthy individuals)

    Pneumococcal pneumonia - secondary disease
  252. Atypical
    Organism differs from typical pneumococcus, symptoms are unlike those in pneumococcal disease
  253. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    One of Smallest bacteria causing human disease

    No cell wall, fragile, will not survive for long periods outside host
  254. PAP
    Primary Atypical Pneumonia

    Resembles viral pneumonia and other respiratory diseases in symptoms

    Fever, fatigue, characteristic dry hacking cough

    "Walking" pneumonia due to mild symptoms
  255. Rickettsia
    Not free living organism, usually animal reservoir
  256. Rickettsia prowazekii
    Epidemic (louse born) typhus

    Insect (lice) bites; Insect vector (biological)

    Reserboir - Rodents-Rats
  257. Richettsia typhi
    Endemic (flea borne) typhus

    Insect (flea) bites; Insect vector (biological)
  258. Rickettsia rickettsii
    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (tick born)

    Tick bites; Insect vector (biological)

    Reservoir - Deer, elk, bears
  259. Obligate Intracellular Parasites
    Rickettsia prowazekii

    Rickettsia typhi

    Rickettsia rickettsii
  260. Coxiella burnetii
    Ricketsia

    Q fever (flu-like symptoms)

    Respiratory-digestive (oral) tract

    Airborne, food/water, arthropods, or conract; livestock (cattle), cow patties
  261. Chlamydia
    Obligate, intracellular, quick
  262. Chlamydia psittaci
    Psittacosis - Parrot fever; Ornithosis = Birds

    Respiratory; Dust, Droplet spray
  263. Chlamydia trachomatis
    STD, becoming most common form STD, Proper hygiene helps prevent

    Trachoma, Lymphogranuloma venereum, NGU or NSU

    Genito-urinary tract; Sexual contact

    Penacillin does not affect
  264. Trachoma
    Inflammation for eye, cloudy eye, cannot see

    Chlamydia trachomatis
  265. Lymphogranuloma venereum
    Inguinal region (lymph nodes)

    Chlamydia trachomatis
  266. NGU or NSU (same thing)
    NGU - non-gonococcal urethritis

    NSU - non-specific urethritis

    Chlamydia trachomatis
  267. Dermatropic (skin) diseases - Virus
    Obligate intracellular parasites - smallest

    • Smallpox
    • Measles
    • German measles
    • Chickenpox/Shingles
    • Herpes simplex I and II
  268. Smallpox
    Dermatropic viral disease

    Variola - Eradicated
  269. Measles
    Dermatropic viral disease

    Rubeola
  270. German measles
    Dermatropic viral disease

    Rubella
  271. Chhickenpox/Shingles
    Dermatropic viral disease

    Varicella zostera - Same organism in kids as adults

    Hides in myelinated sheaths around nerves; activated by stress or lowering resistance
  272. Herpes simplex I and II
    Dermatropic viral disease

    I - Above waist

    II - below waist (generally)
  273. Pneumotropic (upper respiratory tract) diseases - Virus
    Viral

    • Influenza
    • Common cold
    • Hantavirus
  274. Influenza
    Pneumotropic viral disease

    Symptoms manifested throughout body - aches, diarrhea, vomiting, etc. (generalized)
  275. Common cold
    Pnerumotropic viral disease

    Coryza - Rhinovirus attacks through nose, face area

    Localized in head
  276. Hantavirus
    Pneumotropic viral disease

    Spread by mouse droppings

    Influenza like symptoms with bood hemorrhaging

    4 corners disease
  277. Neurotropic (central nervous system) disease - Virus
    Viral disease

    • Rabies
    • Poliomyelitis
    • Viral encephalitis
  278. Rabies
    Neurotropic disease

    Animal bites, saliva
  279. Poliomylitis
    Neurotropic disease

    Gray matter of brain - fecal oral route
  280. Viral encephalitis
    Neurotropic disease

    Inflammation of brain by virus, vectored by insect bite (mosquito)
  281. Viscerotropic (visceral) disease - Virus
    Viral disease

    • Hepatitis - A (infectious)
    • Hepatitis - B (serum)
    • Hepatitis - C (non A, non B)
    • Infectious mononucleosis
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Epidemic parotitis - mumps
  282. Hepatitis - A (infectious)
    Viscerotropic viral disease

    fecal oral route
  283. Hepatitis - B (serum)
    Viscerotropic disease

    Bodily fluids transferred
  284. Hepatitis - C (non A, non B)
    Viscerotropic disease

    Deadly
  285. Infectious mononucleosis
    Viscerotropic disease

    Epstein-Barr virus

    Kissing disease - Mouth to mouth contact
  286. Cytomegalovirus
    Viscerotropic disease

    Cells of great size, cloudy swelling, fever, malaise, enlarged spleen/liver
  287. Epidemic parotitis - mumps
    Viscerotropic disease

    Swollen.inflamed parotid glands

    MMR shot - Mumps, Measles, Rubella
  288. Immunological - HIV
    Cause of AIDS

    Kaposi's sarcoma - Blotchy skin in aids patients

    T-cells are major group of cells affected
  289. AIDS
    Aquired Immune Difficancy Syndrom
  290. OSHA
    Occupational Safety & Health Administration
  291. Creutzfield - Jacob Disease
    Mad cow disease

    Prion
  292. Toxoplasma gondii
    Toxoplasmosis - species of parasitic Protzoa in genus Toxoplasma, definitive host of T. Gondii is cat, parasite can be carried by many warm-blooded animals (birds, mammals)

    Protozoa
  293. Amoebiasis
    Amebic dysentery
  294. Malaria
    Plasmodium vivax
  295. Plasmodium malaria
    Malaria - monkeys, mosquitoes (female of Anopheles mosquito)

    Protozoa
  296. Entamoeba histolytica
    Amoebiasis (dysentery) - Montezuma's revenge, contaminated water

    Protozoa
  297. Pneumocystis carinii
    PCP. Pneumonia - complication in AIDS, low fever, non-productive cough, caused by yeast-like fungus

    Fungi
  298. Aspergillus sp.
    Aspergillosis


    Fungi
  299. Cryptococcus neoformans
    Cryptococcosis - lungs, spinal chord (most dangerous), spread to respiratory by pigeon droppings

    Fungi
  300. Candida albicans
    Candidiasis - yeast infection, vaginal thrush, Monilia albicans, normal inhabitant of human, immunocompromised

    Fungi
  301. Histoplasma capsulatum
    Histoplasmosis - lungs, pneumonia, confused as lung caner or TB

    Fungi
  302. Coccidiodes immitis
    Coccidiomycosis - valley fever

    Fungi
  303. Dermatomycosis
    General name for all funal diseases

    Skin - dermatropic disease

    Ringworm, athletes foot, jockitch
  304. Prion
    Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease
  305. Prion
    No capsid around strand of genetic material

    Not alive

    Slow disease, may take 17 years to manifest symptoms
  306. Protozoa
    Entamoeba histolytica

    Plasmodium malaria

    Tozoplasma gondii
  307. Ciliophora
    Move with cilia
  308. Ameboid
    Motion in water
  309. Pseudopodia
    False feet
  310. Protozoa
    • Single-cell
    • Pseudopodia
    • Move by forming pseudopods (ameboid), or flagellum
    • Insects vector
    • Ciliophora
  311. Single-cell
    Yeasts & Protozoa
  312. Yeasts
    Single-cell
  313. Hyphae
    Intertwined filaments of cells (fungi)
  314. Fungi
    • Eukarotic
    • Hyphae
    • Form spores for reproduction
  315. Disseminated Aspergillus
    Causes blockage of blood vessels

    Inflammation of inner lining of heart, or clots in heart vessels
  316. Aspergillus fumigatus
    Most common cause of Aspergillosis

    Infection of lung, yeild aspergilloma (round ball of mycelium)

    Conidia in earwax - Otomycosis
  317. Aspergillosis
    Unique disease

    Fungus enters as conidia (Asexually produced fungal spores formed on supportive structure without enclosing sac), grows as myceliym

    Compromised host, overwhelming number of conidia enter tissue

    Aspergillus fumigatus
  318. Cryptococcosis
    Fungal disease of lungs and spinal cord

    Opportunistic disease, compromised immune systems
  319. Cryptococcus neoformans
    Fungi causes Cryptococcosis

    Opportunistic fungus infects immunocompromised patients
  320. Candidiasis
    Fungi infection caused by Candida albicans

    Yeast infection if intestine

    Vaginal tract ("yeast disease"), or mucous membranes of mouth (thrush)
  321. Candida albicans
    Fungus causes candidiasis

    Opportunistic fungus infects immunocompromised patients

    Candidiasis
  322. Histoplasma capulatum
    Fungus often in human lung

    Cause of histoplasmosis
  323. Coccidioidomycosis
    Fungal disease of lungs

    Coccidioides immitis

    Cough, malaise, other respiratory symptoms
  324. Dermatomycosis
    Fungi disease of skin

    Microsporum species, Trichophyton species, Epidermophyton species
  325. Pneumocystis carinii
    Opportunistic fungus, Fungi

    Infects lungs, causes pneumonia in immunocompromised patients

    PCP - Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia - lung infection and suffocation; pneumocystosis
  326. Toxoplasma gondii
    Protozoa

    Sporozoa group

    Toxoplasmosis - disease of blood, contact with cats or consumption of beef; malaise

    Immunocompromised patients

    Fetal injury in pregnant women
  327. Plasmodium species
    Protozoa of apicomplexa (formerly Sporozoa)

    Mosquitoes; monkey normal host

    Infect RBC's, Malaria - P. Vivax, P. Malaria, P. Falciparum

    Unicellular, spore-forming, parasites of animals
  328. Entamoeba histolytic
    Protozoa

    Food/water

    Amebic dysentery
  329. Creutzfeldt - Jakob Syndrome
    Kuru, Scrapie, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) - mad cow disease

    Slow virus diseases (much as 17 years)
  330. Prion
    Infectious particles of protein; diseases of brain

    Can survive heat, radiation, and chemical treatment
  331. Protozoa
    Entamoeba histolytic

    Plasmodium species

    Toxoplasma gondii
  332. Fungi
    • Mocrosporum sp., Trichophyton sp., Epidermophyton sp.
    • Coccidiodes immitis
    • Dermatomycosis
    • Doccidioidomycosis
    • Histoplasma capulatum
    • Candida albicans - Candidiasis
    • Cryptococcus neoformans - Cryptococcosis
    • Aspergillosis
    • Pneumocystis - Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
  333. Hyphae and mycelium
    Mold
  334. Irregular undefined shape
    Amoeba
  335. Ringworm
    Tinea
  336. Yeast
    Candida
  337. Dysentery
    Entamoeba
  338. Intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria
    Richettsia
  339. True fungi
    Yeasts and Molds
  340. False fungi
    Bacteria
  341. Smallest animals
    Protozoa
  342. Molds
    Multicellular
  343. Those organisms that reproduce by budding
    Fungi
  344. Disease caused by protozoan parasite
    Amoebic dysentery
  345. Causative agent of dysentery
    Entamoeba histolytica
  346. Example of pathogenic protozoa
    Entamoeba histolytica
  347. Oral and vaginal thrush
    Candida albicans
  348. Protozoan parasite that does NOT have method for locomotion
    Sporozoa
  349. Ringworm is caused by
    Fungus
  350. Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis
    Fungi
  351. Malaria and Amoebiasis
    Protozoa
  352. Protozoa
    Unicellular
  353. Mycology is study of
    Fungi
  354. Monilia is used synonymously with
    Candida
  355. Material of inheritance is contained within
    Nuclear body
  356. Cytoplasm of typical Eucaryotic cell is separated from nucleus by
    Nuclear membrane
  357. Bacteria which contain nuclear bodies are
    Procaryotic
  358. Microscopic one-celled animals are called
    Protozoa
  359. Eucaryotic, true fungi that reproduce by budding
    Yeasts
  360. Self digestion of tissue by enzymes of their own formation
    Autolysis
  361. "True fungi"
    Yeasts
  362. Universal precautions
    Will prevent contamination by these organisms when exposure occurs
  363. Prion
    No capsid around strand of genetic material (DNA or RNA)

    Not alive
  364. Aspergillus sp. - Aspergillosis
    Fungi

    Aspergillosis
  365. Cryptoccus neoformans - Cryptococcosis
    Fungi

    Cryptococcosis - Lungs

    Spinal cord - most dangerous

    May be fatal

    Spread to respiratory tract by pigeon droppings
  366. Candida albicans - Candidiasis
    Fungi

    Candidates - yeast infection

    Viginal thrush

    Monilia albicans

    White fungus in AIDS patients

    Normal inhabitant of humans

    Harms compromised immune system
  367. Histoplasma capsulatum
    Fungi

    Histoplasmosis - Lungs, pneumonia

    Confused as lung cancer or TB
  368. Coccidiodes immitis
    Fungi

    Coccidiodomycosis - Valley Fever
  369. Dermatropic diseases
    Microsporum sp.

    Trichophyton sp.

    Epidermophyton sp.
  370. Microsporum sp., Trichophyton sp., Epidermophyton sp.
    Fungi

    Skin - Dermatropic diseases

    Ringworm, Athletes foot, Jock itch, etc
  371. Fungi
    Eukaryotic

    Hype - intertwined filaments of cells

    Forms spores for reproduction

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