metabolism

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Author:
139shay
ID:
117782
Filename:
metabolism
Updated:
2011-11-26 19:21:53
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metabolism
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metabolism
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  1. glycolysis
    • - anaerobic cellular respiration
    • - occurs in cytosol
    • - fate of pyruvic acid depends on oxygen availability
    • - splits 6-carbon glucose into two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid
    • - consumes 2 ATP but generates 4 ATP
    • - net gain of 2 ATP
  2. if oxygen is scarce
    • - anaerobic reduced to lactic acid then end
    • - hepatocytes can convert it back to pyruvic acid
  3. if oxygen is plentiful
    aerobic converted to acetyl coenzyme A
  4. formation of Acetyl coenzyme A
    • - pyruvic acid enters mitochondria
    • - only occurs if oxygen is available
    • - creating electron NADH carries them
  5. the krebs cycle
    • - also known as citric acid cycle
    • - occurs in matrix of mitochondria
    • - reduced coenzymes ( NADH and FADH2) are the most important outcome
    • - keeps transfering electron H+
    • - transfer electrons and hydrogen
  6. electron transport chain
    • - series of electron carries ( integral membrane proteins ) in inner mitochondrial membrane , clustered into three complexes that act as proton pumps
    • - as electrons pass form on carrier to the next they also move protons ( H+) from matrix into space between inner outer mitochondrial membranes
    • - chemiosmosis
    • - occurs across enter membrane build up hydrogen atoms causing concentration gradient .
    • - triggers molecules to make ATP
    • - water is output
  7. chemiosmosis
    • - links chemical reactions ( passage of electrons ) with pumping of hydrogen ions
    • - NADH provides energy to proton pump ( carrier ) to pump hydrogen from matrix into space between inner and outer mitochondrial membranes
    • - high concentration of Hydrogen accumulates between the membranes
    • - ATP synthesis occurs as Hydrogen diffuses back into matrix through hydrogen channel
    • - the final electron acceptor is oxygen to form water
  8. glucose storage glycogenesis
    • - converts glucose into glycogen
    • - polysaccharide
    • - the only stored form of carbohydrate in humans
    • - insulin stimulates hepatocytes and skeletal muscle cells to synthesize glycogen
  9. glucose release glycogenolysis
    glycogen stored in hepatocytes broken down into glucose and released into blood
  10. insulin
    bluid up
  11. glucogen
    break down
  12. gluconeogenesis
    • - glucose formed from noncarbohydrate sources
    • - if liver runs low on glycogen , body starts catabolzing triglycerides and proteins
    • - glycerol part of triglycerides , lactic acid , and certain amino acids can be converted by the liver into glucose
    • - stimulated by cortisol and glucogen
    • - longated cortisol causes muscle loss
  13. lipid metabolism
    - transport by lipoproteins

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