Chapter 11

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  1. Physical Courage
    524, 527-531, 568-569
    • Can be seen.
    • Reacting in a heroic way in a dangerous situation.
  2. Moral Courage
    • Can not be seen, often lived through without sense of accomplishment, or reward, or aknowledgment.
    • Standing by a friend when its not easy.
    • Calling a Dr. office to get test results.
  3. Phillip Hallie
    • Soldier in WWII American philosopher-never afraid to talk about his feelings
    • published: Tales of Good and Evil, Help and Harm
    • Idea: institutionalized cruelty
    • to him virtue was: the compassion one shows in reaching out to save others at the risk of one's own life.
    • Degrees of moral behavior: Negative Command, Positive Command, and
  4. Institutionalized Cruelty
    • Psychological or physical cruelty that has become so established, it seems natural to both victimizer and victim. ex nazi's treating jews like they are worthless start to think they are.
    • Occurs when one group is more powerful than the other and can only be helped by shifting power balance.
    • Only effective antidote: hospitality offered as an act of compassion, in a way that makes it clear to the victims that their dignity is intact.
  5. Negative Command
    • Just refraining from doing harm. involves a prohibition such as "Don't Lie" or "Don't cause harm".
    • Since it does not require action it is the easiest moral behavior.
  6. Positive Command
    • to actively do something rather than merely refraining from doing something wrong.
    • ex: Helping another being is distress
  7. Richard Taylor 536-40
    • American philosopher who believeswe do the right thing when our heart is in the right place, and moral principles are useless as can always find exceptions.
    • Published: Good and Evil
    • Virtue of compassion is the basis of ethics
  8. Jane English 548-53
    • Believes:
    • 1. children don't owe their parents anything. 2. Reciprocity 3. Mutuality
    • Basis of Good Parent-Child relationship: above all love & friendship 1) need of the parents 2) ability and resources of the grown child
  9. Reciprocity
    • When in debt to someone you must do something similar to return the favor.
    • ex. neighbors checking mail for each other when one is out of town.
  10. Mutuality
    • Implies mutual sense of duty toward each other. Friendship is based on mutuality.
    • There are no debts in a friendship.
  11. Fred Berger
    • In addition to English's views on favors Berger believes that we should look at motivation.
    • If favor done for one's own sake there is no obligation, if done partly for your sake then some obligation should be shown.
    • Believes if someone does an unsolicited favor we have to show gratitude.
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Chapter 11
2011-11-19 02:25:51

Chaper 11
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