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524, 527-531, 568-569
- Can be seen.
- Reacting in a heroic way in a dangerous situation.
- Can not be seen, often lived through without sense of accomplishment, or reward, or aknowledgment.
- Standing by a friend when its not easy.
- Calling a Dr. office to get test results.
- Soldier in WWII American philosopher-never afraid to talk about his feelings
- published: Tales of Good and Evil, Help and Harm
- Idea: institutionalized cruelty
- to him virtue was: the compassion one shows in reaching out to save others at the risk of one's own life.
- Degrees of moral behavior: Negative Command, Positive Command, and
- Psychological or physical cruelty that has become so established, it seems natural to both victimizer and victim. ex nazi's treating jews like they are worthless start to think they are.
- Occurs when one group is more powerful than the other and can only be helped by shifting power balance.
- Only effective antidote: hospitality offered as an act of compassion, in a way that makes it clear to the victims that their dignity is intact.
- Just refraining from doing harm. involves a prohibition such as "Don't Lie" or "Don't cause harm".
- Since it does not require action it is the easiest moral behavior.
- to actively do something rather than merely refraining from doing something wrong.
- ex: Helping another being is distress
Richard Taylor 536-40
- American philosopher who believeswe do the right thing when our heart is in the right place, and moral principles are useless as can always find exceptions.
- Published: Good and Evil
- Virtue of compassion is the basis of ethics
Jane English 548-53
- 1. children don't owe their parents anything. 2. Reciprocity 3. Mutuality
- Basis of Good Parent-Child relationship: above all love & friendship 1) need of the parents 2) ability and resources of the grown child
- When in debt to someone you must do something similar to return the favor.
- ex. neighbors checking mail for each other when one is out of town.
- Implies mutual sense of duty toward each other. Friendship is based on mutuality.
- There are no debts in a friendship.
- In addition to English's views on favors Berger believes that we should look at motivation.
- If favor done for one's own sake there is no obligation, if done partly for your sake then some obligation should be shown.
- Believes if someone does an unsolicited favor we have to show gratitude.
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