What structures are innervated by the motor axons that travel through the white ramus?
innervates visceral organs
What structures are innervated by the motor axons that travel through the gray ramus?
innervates smooth muscle in the body wall & limbs
What structures are innervated by the preganglionic fibers within the sympathetic nerve?
innervates thoracic activity
What structures are innervated by the postganglionic fibers within the sympathetic nerve?
innervates thoracic activity
Where does the information in the dorsal ramus originate from?
sensory info from skin and muscles of back
What type of sensory information travels through the sympathetic nerve?
sensory info from visceral organs
Where does sensory info in the ventral ramus originate from?
sensory info from ventrolateral surface, structures in body wall and limbs
What structures are surrounded by the perineurium, epineurium and endoneurium?
a)perineurium: surrounds fassicles
b)epineurium: surrounds entire spinal nerve
c)endoneurium: surrounds axons
Where is the myelin sheath in relationship to those structures?
it lies deep to endoneurium
Which nerves make up the nerve plexuses?
What does each plexus innervate?
a)cervical: innervates neck and top part of shoulders
b)brachial: innervates shoulders and upper limbs
c)lumbar/sacral: innervates hips, legs & small portion of abdominal wall
Functions of the specified nerves:
-phrenic nerve controls diaphragm, breathing
-ulnar nerve "funny bone" causes tingling sensation when you hit your elbow
-median nerve causes the carpal tunnel syndrome
-sciatic nerve compresses due to back pain
What is the arrangement of the neuronal pools?
1. Divergence: one piece of sensory info processed by several neurons at same time
2. Convergence: several neurons synapse on a single neuron
3. Serial Processing: info is processed further at each step
4. Parallel Processing: one piece of sensory info is further processed by several neurons at once
5. Reverberation: positive feedback loop will increase initial response/stimulus
What are the various classifications of the reflexes?
1. innate reflexes: present at birth
2. acquired reflexes: develop later
3. spinal reflexes: processed in spinal cord
4. cranial reflexes: processed in brain
-monosynaptic: 1 synapse; sensory synapse directly with motor
-polysynaptic: 1 or more interneurons
-visceral reflex: controls organ systems
-somatic reflex: controls skeletal muscles
What is the structure of the basic reflex arc?
(1) Receptor: The receptor activates a nerve impulse in a sensory neuron in response to a change in the body's internal or external environment. Monitors environment.
(2) Sensory neuron: This neuron conducts the impulse from the receptor, through dorsal root, to its axonal end in the central nervous system.
(3) Interneuron: This is a receiving area (usually in the central nervous system) in which the incoming sensory impulse connects with an outgoing motor impulse. The impulse may be repressed, transmitted, or rerouted in the center area.
(4) Motor neuron: The job of the motor neuron is to transmit the impulse/carry motor command to the proper body organ, through ventral root.
(5) Effector: The effector is the organ of the body that responds to the impulse from a motor neuron. An effector may be either a muscle or a gland.
What are the 3 reflexes discussed in work?
-muscle spindle is receptor in muscle, detects stretch