Path Lab Review

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pszurnicki
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117815
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Path Lab Review
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2011-11-20 22:15:14
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Path Lab Review
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Path Lab Review
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  1. 3 conditions that progress to Crescentic glomerulonephritis?
    • Good Pastures
    • Wegeners
    • Microscopic Polyangitis
  2. Wegener's affects what 3 parts of the body?
    • Sinuses
    • Lungs
    • Kidney-RPGN
  3. Wegener's is associated with what antibodies?
    c-anca
  4. Tetrazolium stain used to stain ischemic heart tissue stains ischemic tissue what color?
    WHY?
    • pale
    • bc lactate dehydrogenases have been spilled and do not take up the stain
  5. what kind of necrosis is seen in an infarcted heart?
    coagulative necrosis
  6. In an infarct when do macrophages come?
    Risk is the highest for what?
    • 5-10 days
    • cardiac tamponade
    • free wall rupture
    • interventricular septum rupture
    • papillary muscles rupture
  7. the 1st 5 days after an infarct there is risk for what?
    5-10
    5-10
    • arrhythmia
    • cardiac tamponade

    • papillary muscle rupture
    • free wall rupture
    • interventricular septum rupture

    ventricular wall rupture
  8. What tumor is responsive to estrogen, is a small movable stromal mass?
    fibroadenoma
  9. Rx with cyclosporin A therapy increases chances of getting what tumor?
    Fibroadenoma
  10. What tumor of breast are bilateral?
    • fibroadenoam
    • Lobular carcinoma
  11. What breast tumor has leaf like projections, occurs in the 6th decade and has cysts?
    Phyllodes tumor
  12. Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor occur where in the breast?
    intralobular strome
  13. Which breast tumor shows high level of desmoplasia?
    invasive ductal carcinoma
  14. Squamous cell carcinoma have what characteristic composition?
    Positive for what?
    • keratin pearls
    • cytokeratin
  15. Nests of basaloid cells with palisading nuclei describes what tumor?
    Basal Cell carcinoma
  16. Which of the skin tumors has local invasion only and no metastasis?
    Basal Cell Carcinoma
  17. Hydroxyurea is used for what 2 cancers?
    • CML
    • Melanoma
  18. What tumor suppressor gene is mutated in melanomas?
    p16 on chromosome 9
  19. Aldesleukin is used for what 2 conditions?
    • Renal cell Carcinoma
    • Malignant melanoma
  20. Precursor to Melanoma?
    Squamous cell Carcinoma?
    • Dysplastic Nevus
    • Actinic keratosis
  21. marker for Melanoma?
    s-100
  22. Diagnosis of Sideroblastic anemia?
    delta ALA high in urine
  23. Ab to Her-2(erb-2)?
    Trastuzamab
  24. Rx for breast cancer with ER+ and Her-2 +?
    • Raloxifene
    • Trastuzamab
  25. How does Vit B12 deficiency incrase the risk for atherosclerosis?
    increased homocysteine
  26. Hair on end appearance is seen in what 2 conditions?
    • extramedullary hematopeiosis---
    • Sickle cell
    • Thalasemia
  27. What vasculitis presents with granulomatous lesions and eosinophilia and with asthma, sinusitis
    Churg-Straus---
  28. 2 Conditions associated with p-anca?
    • Microscopic polyangitis
    • Churg-Strauss syndrome
  29. Causes of eosinophilia?
    • Neoplastic
    • Asthma
    • Allergy--interstitial nephritis--methicillin, cephalolithan
    • Collagen vascular disease
    • Parasites
  30. What tumor may transform into ALL or AML?
    CML
  31. ALL presents in what age group?
    Marker?
    X ray finding?
    • children
    • TdT for pre B and pre T cells
    • Mediastinal Mass
  32. In terms of a percentage of blasts what is acute vs chronic leukemia?
    • actue--->20% of cells are blasts
    • Chronic--<20% of cells are blasts
  33. Translocation in AML?
    Characteristic finding?
    • 15:17
    • Auer rods
  34. Who gets Hairy Cell leukemia?
    Marker?
    • Elderly
    • Tartrate resitant alkaline phosphotase
  35. What causes Warm agglutinins?
    • SLE
    • CLL
    • drugs i.e alpha methyl dopa
  36. What causes cold agglutinins
    • CLL
    • infections
    • Mycoplasma
    • Infectious mononucleosis--malaise
  37. WBC that look smudged are seen in what Cancer?
    CLL--elderly
  38. Fried egg appearance of plasma cells are seen in what cnacer?
    MM
  39. Manifestations of MM?
    • Calcemia--hyper
    • Renal insufficienyc--bence jones protein
    • Anemia
    • Bone lytic lesions/back pain
  40. HTN in MM due to?
    high IgG in plasma increase viscosity and Q=P/R
  41. Amyloidosis causing nephrotic syndrome?
    • any inflammatory disorder---RA
    • MM
    • DM
    • Medullary carcinoma of thyroid
    • Senile
    • Transthyretin
  42. How does MM cause lytic lesions and hypercalcemia
    a protein activate NF-kappa signalling cascade which activates osteoclasts
  43. Which hodkin lymphoma is associated with EBV?
    • Lymphocyte rich
    • Lymphocyte Depletion
    • Mixed Cellularity
  44. WHich hodkin lymphoma has collagen banding and lacunar cells?
    Nodular Sclerosing
  45. EBV is associated with hodking or non hodkin lymphoma?
    Hodgkin Lymphoma
  46. Hodgkin or non hodgkin has bimodal distribution?
    Hodgkin
  47. Lymphocyte depletion variant of Hodgkin lymphoma affects who?
    eldrly and HIV + individuals
  48. Cells resembling popcorn cell occuring in males younger than 35 yo is what variant of hodgkin lymphoma?
    Lymphocytic variant
  49. Difference between Leukemoid vs leukemia?
    High basophils in leukemia and high LAP in leukemoid
  50. 4 stages of pneumonia?
    • congestion--hyperemic tissue, vascular engorgement
    • red hepatizaton-spillage of neutrophils, fibrin, rbcs in the alveoli
    • brown hepatization--progressive degradation of red cells and fibrinosuppurative exudate
    • resolution--debris digested by macrophages and expectorated
  51. 5 consequences of asbestosis?
    • plaques
    • pleural effusion
    • fibrosis
    • mesothelioma
    • carcinoma
  52. Ferrigenous bodies are made up of what?
    iron-protein complexes
  53. What are the components of WAGR syndrome?
    • Wilms tumor
    • aniridia
    • genital abnormalities
    • Retardation mental
  54. Components of Denny-Drash syndomre?
    • Gonadal dysgenesis
    • nephropathy
    • gonadoblastoma
    • Wilms tumor
  55. Components of Beckwith-Wiedmann syndrome?
    • semihypertrophy
    • wilms tumor
  56. 3 risk factors for Hyaline membrane disease?
    • prematurity
    • maternal diabetes
    • cessarian section
  57. What tumor produces hypertrophic osteoarthrophaty?
    Bronchogenic carcinoma
  58. Pseudorosettes?
    • neuroblastoma
    • ependymoma
    • medulloblastoma
    • retinoblastoma
  59. Leukoplakia or erythroplakia gives rise to malignant transformations?
    erythroplakia
  60. What kinds of pathologies does H pylori causes?
    • chronic gastritis
    • gastric ulcer
    • duodenal ulcer
    • stomach adenocarcinoma
    • Maltoma
  61. Meckels diverticulum results from faulty resorption of what?
    vitelline duct--which connect the intestinal lumne to yolk sac
  62. What kind of tissue can a meckels diverticulum have?
    • pancreatic
    • gastric
    • all can cause gastic performations
  63. What can cause pyloric stenosis in adults?
    chronic gastritis of antrum, carcinoma of distal stomach, pancreatic carcinoma
  64. 2 conditions which produce subluxation of lens?
    • marfans
    • homocytinuria
  65. APC gene for FAP is located on what chromosome?
    5
  66. what 2 molecular pathways lead to adenocarcinoma of colon?
    • APC:K-ras:p53
    • microsatellite instability
  67. 4 conditions which lead to colorectal cancer?
    • FAP
    • HNPCC
    • Gardners + FAP
    • Turcots + FAP
  68. Staging for CRC is what?
    invasion and l. node metastasis
  69. 3 locations for carcinoid tumors?
    • rectum
    • appendix
    • ileum
  70. What tumor produces right sided murmurs>
    Carcinoid tumor
  71. What intestinal infection can mimic appendicitis?
    yersinia infection
  72. Mittelshmerz?
    pain during ovulation
  73. What tumor has shiller duval bodies and resembles glomerulus?
    yolk sac tumor--alpha feto protein
  74. Risk of developing what with Pagets?
    osteosarcoma
  75. Devitalized bone in osteomyelitis is?
    New bone over devitalized bone is?
    • sequestrum
    • involcrum
  76. Mesangial thickening in Diabetic nephropathy is called?
    Nodular glomerulosclerosis(Kimmelstiel-Wilson Disease)
  77. ADPKD is located on what chromosome?
    16
  78. Complications of ADPKD?
    • MVP
    • Liver cystic disease
    • Berry aneurysm
  79. Which form of chronic pyelonephritis resembles RCC?
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis caused by proteus
  80. Oncocytoma?
    renal tumor originated from intercalated cells of collecting ducts
  81. Most common tumor type of Renal cell carcinoma?
    clear cell carcinom
  82. Stain for copper?
    rhodamine

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