Physics-Bioeffects

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Author:
aprilh4485
ID:
117820
Filename:
Physics-Bioeffects
Updated:
2011-11-18 23:58:00
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Sonography
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Description:
Bioeffects
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  1. A bioeffect report claims that obstetrical scanning may be harmful to a particular group of patients. What should be the response of the medical community?
    A. perform exams on all patients when the benefits outweigh the risks
    B. ignore the report
    C. halt all exam on this patient group
    D. stop all diagnostic exams
    E. perform the exams on all patients when the benefits are outweighed by the risks
    A. perform exams on all patients when the benefits outweigh the risks
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The study of the characteristics, attributes, and quantities of a substance that induces bioeffects is called __________.
    dosimetry
  3. True or False.
    There are no bioeffects associated with ultrasound.
    False.
  4. True or False.
    There are no bioeffects associated with ultrasound with characteristics typical of those in diagnostic medicine.
    False.
  5. True or False.
    There are no harmful bioeffects associated with ultrasound with characteristics typical of those in diagnostic medicine.
    True
  6. True or False.
    Cavitation describes the interaction between sound waves and small gas bubbles that inhabit the tissues.
    True
  7. True or False.
    There are two forms of cavitation: inertial and normal.
    • False.
    • Stable and normal (or inertial or transient)
  8. True or False.
    Normal, transient, or inertial cavitation describes the bursting of microbubbles.
    True
  9. Which of the following is not associated with the mechanistic approach?
    A. identifying a cause and effect relationship
    B. analyzing the mechanism using theoretical methods
    C. proposing a specific means that could produce a bioeffect
    D. reaching a valid scientific conclusion
    E. studying charts of patients who have been exposed to ultrasound
    E. studying charts of patients who have been exposed to ultrasound
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Veterans of "Operation Iraqi Freedom" suspect that they have been exposed to chemical warfare agents. The Veterans Administration Hospital surveyed these soldiers to identify the presence of symptoms and their prevalence. What form of medical investigation is this?
    empirical approach; exposure-response
  11. Name the two important mechanisms likely to induce bioeffects.
    thermal and cavitation
  12. Which statements allow us to conclude that diagnostic ultrasound does not injure tissues via temperature elevation?
    A. death resulting from an ultrasound exam has never been reported
    B. patients do not complain of burning during ultrasound exams
    C. mechanical data indicate that diagnostic ultrasound is safe
    D. conclusions from empirical data and mechanistic data are consistent, that is, diagnostic ultrasound is unlikely to cause thermally induced bioeffects
    D. conclusions from empirical data and mechanistic data are consistent, that is, diagnostic ultrasound is unlikely to cause thermally induced bioeffects
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. True or False.
    Stable cavitation describes the rhythmical swelling and shrinking of gaseous nuclei.
    True
  14. The primary investigative technique of epidemiology is:
    A. computer modeling
    B. library research
    C. reviewing data from patients
    D. performing animal experiments
    C. reviewing data from patients
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following is not a limitation of epidemiological studies?
    A. even when a bioeffect is identified, the investigator is still unsure of the specific reason for its occurance
    B. when the bioeffect rate is small, numerous patients must be studied
    C. it does not provide greater understanding of the biologic significance of bioeffects
    D. medical charts are sometimes incomplete or inaccurate
    E. other factors, unrelated to the study's ultimate goal, must be accounted for
    C. it does not provide greater understanding of the biologic significance of bioeffects
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. True or False.
    The intensity limit established for diagnostic ultrasound is higher for focused sound beams that for broad, unfocused beams.
    True
  17. True or False.
    In vitro studies are performed exclusively on living animals.
    False
  18. True or False.
    Bioeffects identified through in vitro research are not considered real.
    false
  19. Which measure of intensity is related most closely to tissue heating?
    A. Im
    B. SATA
    C. SPPA
    D. SPTA
    E. SPTP
    D. SPTA
  20. The next step following the identification of an in vitro bioeffect is:
    A. ignore the results: its only an in vitro observation
    B. propose in vivo research to evaluate the clinical significance of the bioeffect
    C. cease performing clinical studies that may induce bioeffects in vivo
    D. obtain an informed concent regarding this report from all patients
    E. continue with in vitro research
    B. propose in vivo research to evaluate the clinical significance of the bioeffect
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. True or false.
    Exposing an individual to ultrasound form a diagnostic imaging system is never appropriate when there is absolutely no clinical benefit to that individual.
    false; research and training
  22. Which component of an ultrasound system is most likely to expose a patient to danger?
    transducer
  23. Which is generally true of diagnostic ultrasound?
    A. only new technologies such as 3-D or intravascular ultrasound need to be evaluated for bioeffects
    B. harmful bioeffects do not occur, but it is irresponsible to ignore the possibility that they may
    C. harmful bioeffects do not occur, and it is unnecessary to discuss them
    D. harmful bioeffects are often seen, but the benefit to patients still outweighs the risk
    B. harmful bioeffects do not occur, but it is irresponsible to ignore the possibility that they may
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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