Marketing

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Author:
vasquez.l
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117894
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Marketing
Updated:
2011-11-19 13:37:12
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Marketing Chapter 13
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Advertising, Sales Promotions, and Public Relations
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  1. Advertising: The image of marketing
    • --Product/ brand placements: marketing communication activity in which companies have their products embedded in movies, TV shows, and other entertainment vehicles
    • --Advertising: non-personal communication an identified sponsor pays for that uses mass media to persuade or inform audience
    • --A potent force that creates desire for products, it transports us to imaginary worlds where the people are happy, beautiful, or rich
    • --Allows organization to communicate its message in a favorable way and to repeat the message as often as it deems necessary to have an impact on
    • receivers
  2. Types of Advertising
    Product Advertising
    Message that focuses on a specific good or service
  3. Institutional Advertsing
    • Promotes the activities, personality, or point of view of an organization or company
    • Advocacy advertising: a type of public service advertising an organization provides that seeks to influence public opinion on an issue because it has some stake in the outcome
    • Public service advertisements (PSAs): the media run free charge for not for profit organizations or to champion a particular cause
  4. Retail and Local Advertising
    • Local businesses advertise to encourage customers to shop at a specific store or use a local service
    • Informs about store hours, location, and products
  5. Do it Yourself Advertisng
    Some marketers encourage consumers to contribute to their ads
  6. Develop the Advertising Campaign
    • Step 1: Understand the Target Audience
    • Step 2: Establish Message and Budget Objective
    • Step 3: Create the Ads
    • Step 4: Pretest What the Ads Will Say
    • Step 5: Choose the Media Types and Media Schedule
  7. Step 1: Understand the Target Audience
    • To understand as much as possible about them and what turns them on and off
    • Most directed toward customers
    • Identify the target audience for an advertising campaign from research related to a segmentation strategy
  8. Step 2: Establish Message and Budget Objective
    • Consistent with the overall communication plan
    • The underlying message and its cost need to relate to what the marketer is trying to say about the product
    • Set Message Objectives
    • Set Budget Objectives
  9. Set Message Objectives
    • Advertising can inform, persuade, and remind
    • Aim to make the customer knowledgeable about features of the product or how to use it
    • Persuade consumers to like a brand or to prefer one brand over the competition
    • But many ads simply aim to keep the name of the brand in front of the consumer
  10. Set Budget Objectives
    • Allocate a percentage of its overall communication budget to advertising
    • Firms today are reducing their expenditures on traditional media and spending more on alternative media
    • The percentage of sales and objective task methods also set advertising budgets
  11. Step 3: Create the Ads
    • Creative strategy: process that turns a concept into an advertisement
    • Figure out how to say it
    • A concept that expresses aspects of the good, service, or organization in a tangible, attention getting, memorable manner
  12. Advertising Appeal: the central idea of the ad
    Unique Selling Proposition
    • Reasons why – the USP: a unique selling proposition (USP) gives consumers a single, clear reason why one product is better to solve a problem
    • Format focuses on a need and points out how the product can satisfy
    • Effective if there is some clear product advantage that consumers can readily indentify
  13. Comparative Advertising
    • comparative advertisement explicitly names one or more competitors
    • Risk of turning off consumers who don’t like the negative tone
    • Best for brands that have a smaller share of the market and for firms that can focus on a specific feature that makes them superior to a major brand
  14. Demonstration
    ad shows a product “in action” to prove that it performs as claimed
  15. Testimonial
    a celebrity, an expert, or a “man in the street” states the product’s effectiveness
  16. Slice of Life
    • format present a dramatizes scene from everyday life
    • For everyday products
  17. Fear Appeals
    • highlights the negative consequences of not using a product
    • Create concern for social harm or disapproval
  18. Humorous Appeal
    • humorous can be an effective way to break through advertising clutter
    • Different cultures also have different sense of humor
  19. Slogans, jingles, and music
    link the brand to a simple linguistic device that is memorable
  20. Step 4: Pretest What the Ads Will Say
    • Pretesting: a research method that seeks to minimize mistakes by getting consumer reactions to ad messages before they appear in the media
    • Information comes from quantitative sources, such as surveys, and qualitative sources, such as focus groups
    • Measure ads effectiveness
  21. Step 5: Choose the Media Types and Media Schedule
    • Media planning: is a problem solving process of developing media objectives, strategies, and tactics for getting a message to a target audience in the most effective way.
    • First task for a media planner is to find out when and where people in the target market are most likely to be exposed to the communication
    • Aperture: the best place and time “window” to reach the target market group
    • The choice depends on the specific target audience, the objective of the message, and of course, the budget
  22. Media Scheduling: When to Say it
    Media Schedule
    • that specifies the exact media to use for the campaign as well as when and how often the message should appear
    • Outlines the planner’s best estimate of which media will be most effective in the attaining the advertising objectives and which specific media vehicles will do the most effective job
  23. Advertising Exposure
    the degree to which the target market will see an advertising message in a specific medium
  24. Exposure
    • number of people who will be exposed to a message placed in a one or more media vehicles
    • To calculate the exposure a message will have if its placed on a certain media vehicle, planners consider two factors:
    • Reach
    • Frequency
  25. Reach
    is the percentage of the target market that will be exposed to the media vehicle at least once
  26. Frequency
    the average number of times that these members of the target market will be exposed to the message
  27. Gross rating points (GRPs):
    a measure used for comparing the effectiveness of different media vehicles: average reach *frequency
  28. Cost per thousand (CPM):
    a measure used to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of different media vehicles that have different exposure rates; the cost to deliver a message to 1000 people or homes
  29. How Often to Say It
    • Continuos Schedule
    • Pulsing Scheduling
    • Flighting
  30. Continuous Schedule
    • Maintains a steady stream of advertising throughout the year
    • Most appropriate for products that we buy on a regular basis
    • Issue: ware out
  31. Pulsing Scheduling
    • varies the amount of advertising throughout the year based on the products is likely to be in demand
    • Issue: retention
  32. Flighting
    an extreme form of pulsing; advertising appears in short, intense burst alternating with periods of little to no activity
  33. Step 6: Evaluate the Advertising
    • Posttesting: means conducting research on consumers's responses to advertising messages they have seen or heard
    • Unaided recall
    • Aided recall
    • Attitudinal measures
  34. Unaided Recall
    remembers seeing an ad during a specified period without giving the person the name of the brand
  35. Aided Recall
    show a group of consumers a list of brands and ask them to choose which items they have seen advertised within the past week
  36. Attitudinal Measures
    testing consumers beliefs or feelings about a product before and after they are exposed to messages about it
  37. Public Relations
    • Is the communication function that seeks to build good relationships with an organization’s publics, these include consumers, stockholder in the organization
    • Strategies are crucial to an organization’s ability to establish and maintain a favorable image
  38. Proactive PR
    • activates stem from the company’s marketing objectives
    • Publicity: unpaid communication about an organization that gets media exposure
    • Firm’s publicists need to create a buzz
  39. Reactive PR
    • To manage the flow of information to address concerns so that consumers don’t panic and distributors don’t abandon the product
    • A single negative event can cause permanent damage to company, the success f its products, and its stockholder equity
  40. Crisis Management Plan
    document that details what an organization will do if a crisis occurs
  41. Objectivesof Public Relations
    • Introduce new products to manufactures
    • Introduce new products to consumer
    • Influence government legislation
    • Enhance the image of organization
    • Enhance the image of a city, region, or country
    • Call attention to a firm’s involvement with the community

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