Anthropology Quiz 2

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Anthropology Quiz 2
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2011-11-19 15:59:05
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Anthropology Quiz
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Anthropology Quiz 2
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  1. Kinship
    the way people define and classify their kin and the way these classifications relate to social behavior and social organization
  2. Terms of Reference
    the terms by which people refer to their kin (brother, sister)
  3. Terms of Address
    the terms people use when they address their kin directly.
  4. consanguineal kin
    One's brothers and sisters, one's father and mother, his and her brothers and sisters, and their childeren. Those related to us by birth.
  5. Affinal kin
    are the people related to one through marriage-one's spouse and all of his or her relatives as well as the spouses of one's own consanguineal kin.
  6. fictive kin
    A friend you'd call your blood brother, or a family friend that your children call "uncle", or "auntie".
  7. Matilateral
    From specifically just the mother's side of the family, or to inherit kinship just through their mother.
  8. Patrilateral
    To inherit kinship just through your father.
  9. Ego
    used to indicate the individual who is the point of reference in a kinship relatonship
  10. Lineal relatives
    direct ascendants and descendants
  11. collateral relatives
    people to whom one is related through a connecting person. (an uncle who is related to ego through one of ego's parents is a collateral relative.
  12. cross cousins
    Mother's brother's childeren and father's sisters's children
  13. parallel cousins
    mother's sisters' children and father's brothers' children.
  14. descent group
    a group of consanguineal kin united by presumed lineal descent from a common ancestor.
  15. unilineal descent groups
    in which deescent is traced through one parental line only
  16. nonunilineal descent groups
    in which descent may be traced through either parent or through both.
  17. Patrilineal descent
    ideology all children are members of the descent group or groups of which their father isa member.
  18. Matrilineal descent
    all children are members of their mother's group
  19. matrilocality
    woman may achieve higher status and more authority than they can in patrilineal and patrilocally constituted communities.
  20. lineage
    is a group of kin composed of people who trace their genealogies through specified links to a common ancestor.
  21. unilineal descent
    the larger, more encompassing lineage is likely to be defined by descent from a more distant ancestor.
  22. segmentary lineages
    descent groups in which minimal lineages are segments of minor lineages, minor lineages are segments of major lineages, and so on with the result that all more than 800,000 Tiv regard themselves as related in a single genealogical hierrarchy.
  23. Totem
    a matriclan or patriclan will be named after a plant or animal called a totem.
  24. Clans
    groups, can either be matriclan, or patriclan based on which parent plays the ego role.
  25. Tribe
    when group related lineages and clans share a common name and identity
  26. Ambilinieal descent
    a person affiliates with kin groups on the basis of ties traced through either the paternal or the maternal line. In some ambilinieal societies, a person is expected at some point to choose among the various kin groups to which he or she is in some way lineally related.
  27. Bilateral descent
    the system that we use in our own society, individuals define themselves as being the center of a group of kin composed more or less equally of their mothers' and fathers' relatives of all kinds - grandparents, aunts, and uncles, great aunts, and great uncles, cousins, and second cousins, nieces, and nepews, and ofcourse the nuclear family.
  28. kindred
    is a network, a set of interlocking social relations, as seen by the ego to whom they are all related.
  29. bride wealth/bride price
    man pays the family from which he takes a daughter in marriage.
  30. bride service
    working for the family that he takes the girl from
  31. dowry
    to take a daughter was common in medieval Europe and exists today in parts of eastern Europe and paricularly in India.
  32. levirate and sororate
    exemplify the widely held conception of marriages as an exchange between kin groups. These social customs extend the marriage contract beyond the death of a spouse. Under the levirate, a man has both the right to marry his dead brother's widow (or demand bride payment from another husband she chooses) and the obligation to provide fro her. sororate, a widower has the right to marry one of his deceased wife's sisters, and her kin are obliged to provid him with a new wife.
  33. exogamy
    defines the group out of hich the individual should marry. Usually men seek out their wives.
  34. endogamy
    which prescribe the outer limits of acceptable marriage.
  35. monogamy
    which restricts marriage to only one man, and one woman at a time.
  36. polygamy
    plurlal marraige.
  37. serial monogamy
    divorcing and then remarrying, perhaps many times
  38. polygyny
    marriage between one man and two or more women at the same time
  39. polyandry
    marriage between one woman and two or more men at the same time.
  40. neolocal residence
    a married couple usually establishes their own household apart from both the husband's and the wife's kin.
  41. Patrilocal residence
    residence of a married couple with or near the husband's kin - is the preferred arrangement in most patrilineal societies as we saw with the Yoruk and the Ariaal.
  42. Matrilocal residence
    residence of a married couple with or near the wife's kin, is also quite common as we saw in the earlier Hopi example. Matrilcoal residence is usually found in matrilineal societies that favor marriage to someone in the same village, so most male members of the matrilineage remain in their natal neighborhood.
  43. avunculocal residence
    this pattern-residence of a married couple with or near a brother of the husband's mother who is a senior member of his matrilineage is known as avunculocal residence.
  44. bilocal residence
    a married couple regularly alternate their residence between the household or vicinity of the wife's kin and that of the husband's kin.
  45. ambilocality
    a pattern in which the couple reside with or near the kin of either usband or wife as they choose.
  46. household
    the domestic residential group, whose members live together in intimate contact, rear children, share the proceeds of labor and other resources held in common, and in general cooperate on a day to day basis.
  47. conjugal relationship
    that between spouses.
  48. matrifocal family household
    a family household relation based solely on mother and childeren.
  49. independent family ousehold
    is a single family unity, that resides by itself, apart from relatives or adults of other generations.
  50. nuclear family household
    the family that is purely related to birth.
  51. extended family household
    a multiple family unit incorporating adults of two or more generations.
  52. domestic cycle
    that is, according to the series of demographic events that it undergoes over time.
  53. joint family household
    a complex extended household, formed through polygyny or polyandry or through the decision of married siblings to live together
  54. biologoical race
    a genetically distinct population or subgrouping within a species
  55. caste
    a status category in which membership is fixed at birth and usually unchangeable
  56. economic class
    a roup that is defined by the economic position of its members in relation to the means of prodction in the society the wealth and relative economic control they may command.
  57. ethnicity
    a basis for social categories that are rooted in socially percieved differences in national origin, language, and/or religion.
  58. gender hierarchies
    differential power and authority afforded to men and women by the cultural system, resulting form gender specific differential access to resources and the political process.
  59. genotype
    the genetic make up of an individual or of specific genetically defined traits.
  60. jati
    occupational categories or groupings within the Indian caste system
  61. mechanical solidarity
    the unity of a society formed of social units that are comparable
  62. nationalism
    the feeling or belief that a people and land are inherently linked and using this belief to legitimize a particular state or nation.
  63. organic solidarity
    the unity of a complex society formed of dissimilar, specialized groupins, each having a restricted function.
  64. phenotype
    the physical expression of a genotype in a specific environment.
  65. racism
    acting on the belief that different races have different capacities for culture.
  66. slave
    a person who is the property of another, generally kept for physical labor. Slave systems were common in ancient civilizations including Egypt and Rome, and also in capitalist development of sugar and cotton in the New World
  67. social division of labor
    the process by which a society is formed by the integration of its smaller groups or subsets.
  68. animatism
    belief in an impersonal supernatural force
  69. animism
    belief in a soul, a spiritual essence that differs from the tangible, physical body
  70. divination
    a practice in which an element of nature acts as a sign to provide supernatural information to the diviner.
  71. excorcism
    ritual intended to remove or placate spirits thought to be associated with people, places or things
  72. Ghost dance
    the name applied to Native American revitalization movement in the western united states at the end of the last centur. The ghost dance is associated notably with the massacre at Wounded Knee Creek.
  73. liminal state
    the ambiguious status or position of an individual moving from one socially defined state to another.
  74. monotheism
    one god belief
  75. polytheism
    belief in many gods
  76. profane
    the sphereof the ordinary and routine, the everyday, natural world.
  77. religion
    a system of beliefs in supernatural forces, symbols, and rituals that serve to make life meaningful and intelligible
  78. revitalization movements
    conscius efforts to build an ideaology that will be relevant to changing cultural needs
  79. rites of intensification
    rituals intended either to bolster a natural process nessary to survival or to reaffirm the society's commitment to a particular set of values and beliefs.
  80. ritess of passage
    rituals that makr a person's transiitons from one set of socially identified circumstances to another.
  81. sacred
    the sphere of extrodinary phenomena associated with aawsome supernatural forces.
  82. taboo
    supernaturally prohibition on certain activites
  83. theism
    belief in god of extrahuman origin
  84. witchcraft
    use of religion to exploit people, injure them or freak them the fuck out.

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